Ideas When Thinking Of Electrical Installation In Floor Heating


Install, maintain, and repair electrical wiring, equipment, and fixtures. Ensure that work is in accordance with relevant codes. May install or service street lights, intercom systems, or electrical control systems.


Electrician, Maintenance Electrician, Journeyman Electrician, Inside Wireman, Control Electrician, Electrician Technician, Industrial Electrician, Journeyman Wireman


Maintain current electrician’s license or identification card to meet governmental regulations.

Connect wires to circuit breakers, transformers, or other components.

Repair or replace wiring, equipment, or fixtures, using hand tools or power tools.

Assemble, install, test, or maintain electrical or electronic wiring, equipment, appliances, apparatus, or fixtures, using hand tools or power tools.

Test electrical systems or continuity of circuits in electrical wiring, equipment, or fixtures, using testing devices, such as ohmmeters, voltmeters, or oscilloscopes, to ensure compatibility and safety of system.

Use a variety of tools or equipment, such as power construction equipment, measuring devices, power tools, and testing equipment, such as oscilloscopes, ammeters, or test lamps.

Plan layout and installation of electrical wiring, equipment, or fixtures, based on job specifications and local codes.

Inspect electrical systems, equipment, or components to identify hazards, defects, or the need for adjustment or repair, and to ensure compliance with codes.

Direct or train workers to install, maintain, or repair electrical wiring, equipment, or fixtures.

Diagnose malfunctioning systems, apparatus, or components, using test equipment and hand tools to locate the cause of a breakdown and correct the problem.


Cable reels – Single reel cable trailers; Wheeled wire dispensers; Wire dollies; Wire hand caddies

Conduit benders – Cable benders; Electric conduit benders; Hydraulic conduit benders

Stripping tools – Cable jacket strippers; Self-adjusting insulation strippers; Universal stripping tools; Wire strippers

Voltage or current meters – Milliameters; Non-contact voltage detectors; Test lamps; Volt tick meters

Wire or cable cutters – Cable butt trimmers; High-leverage cable cutters; Insulated cable cutters; Utility cable cutters


Analytical or scientific software – Electrosoft FlashWorks; Elite Software E-Coord; Elite Software Inpoint; SoftEmpire Electrical Calculations

Computer aided design CAD software – One Mile Up Panel Planner; SmartDraw software

Data base user interface and query software – Insight Direct ServiceCEO; Resolve service management software; Sage Timberline Office software; Shafer Service Systems software

Project management software – Construction Master Pro software; Craftsman CD Estimator

Word processing software – Socrates Contractor’s Library

New Home Electrical Services

What can do for you?

Electrical Design

Electrical Wiring

Home Automation and Control

Home Theatre and Multi Room Audio

Underfloor Heating

Air Conditioning and Heat Pumps

Home Ventilation

Heated Towel Rail Timers

Central Vacuuming Systems

Data and Communications

Security, Alarms and CCTV

Lighting Design

Energy Efficiency and Solar

Underground Services

will work with you to design an electrical system that not only works within the architectural parameters of your home but also is practical enough to function for normal household use. know building a new home requires a lot of important decision making, which is why will take the time to discuss your electrical requirements and help you create your house into a home.

responsibility is to provide you with the most up to date and innovative solutions for your home. That is why work closely with our key suppliers to ensure deliver the latest technologies at a competitive price. have access to a wide range of quality products and along with our expert knowledge, you can rest assured your electrical decor and performance expectations are met.

believe energy efficient homes not only cost less to run but are more comfortable to live in. That is why you can rely on to give you expert advice and the best solutions to make your home warmer, drier and healthier to live in. See energy efficiency pages for more information.

When it comes to electrical installations, goal is to minimise your stress by providing an electrician who shows up on time, is well presented, professional and carries out your job with care and skill. Through innovation, planning and use of quality systems take pride in providing you with the highest level of customer service.

Electrical Installation Scheme for Hotel Rooms: Electrical Layout plan for a typical guest room

Many investors turn to with the question, how to plan electrical installations for a typical hotel room and what works best in practice? most common advice is to keep things simple and uncomplicated for the guest. believe that good technical solutions have to remain “invisible” for the guest. This means that they should function “smoothly” and should not disturb the guest’s stay in the hotel or suite.

How to plan electrical installations for a hotel?

This post tries to answer the question how to plan electrical installations for a hotel room in order to keep automation simple and user friendly? advise clients to answer the following questions:

Which functions provide extra comfort for the guests and  improve their user experience?

Which functions reduce extra comfort for the guests and  diminish their user experience?

Electrical Installations for a standard Hotel Room

Below is example of the most appropriate electrical installation solution for a hotel room or suite.

Electrical installations were divided into four groups:

hotel systems and locks,


plug sockets,


Sockets marked with a star remain active after the card had been removed from the energy saving switch and the power for other power consumers has been cut. The introduced configuration can be extended or cut down on. All depending on the requirements of the investor and the type of guests he/she wishes to attract.

Electrical Safety in the Workplace: What are you obligated to do?

The maze of regulations and rules surrounding businesses can be blinding at the best of times, but the last thing you want to do is break a rule that is easy to put in place. Whether you’re a new business owner, or manager of an established business with new equipment, electrical safety in the workplace is one requirement that can be easily fulfilled.

While the law does not require electrical testing to be carried out, it does require your electrical equipment to be safe at all times. Electricity will always find the easiest path to earth. Any faults or weaknesses within your electrical installation or portable appliances can go undetected. In the event of another fault developing, this could lead to serious risk of fire, electrocution or death.

In the workplace the regulations specify that employers take steps to limit the risk of harm from electricity and electrical systems, and this includes both electrical installations and electrical equipment. These regulations apply to most electrical equipment – consumer, commercial and industrial – operating between 50 volts and 1,000 volts AC or between 75 volts and 1,500 volts DC.

The only way to ensure every effort is made towards a safe workplace, and to ensure you can back up your hard work if things go wrong, is to have regular electrical testing carried out on all the electrical equipment at your workplace. This will accurately identify faults, their locations and usually the recommended solution.

Increasingly, insurers are insisting that inspection and testing be carried out on a regular basis. If you suffer an avoidable accident, then under law if found guilty you will be deemed to have committed a criminal offence. Insurers will not pay fines or compensation for losses suffered resulting from a criminal offence

Things You Need To Do To Prepare Your Home for An Electrician

Electricity is an important part of your daily life. Most of the devices you use in your homes such as TVs, light bulbs, smart home devices, and heating systems cannot function without electricity. Whenever you recognize an electrical problem in your home, it is always important to call in a reputable and highly qualified electrician. However, electrical work can be quite inconveniencing and messy. As a homeowner, how do you ensure that the mess is kept at a minimum and there is no significant damage to the property?

Plan Ahead

What do you want the electrician to do for you? Make a list of all the electrical services you want. Are you looking to add value to an old property before selling it? Or, do you need cable wiring for your kitchen, basements or entertainment area? Write down everything you want to be done including a list of what to expect from the electrician. You will need to bring in an electrician who respects your home and brings high standards of work

Move Things Out Of The Way

Prior to the electrician’s arrival at your house, you will need to remove anything that could cause inconveniences and delays to the project. Any obstructions to accessing your homes main electrical panel should be removed. Move furniture and carpets to protect them from getting dusty and also to create space for moving electrical equipment. Fragile items should be kept safely away from the working area to prevent losses. If the electrical work will make it difficult for your family to carry out their day to day activities, for instance, if the electricity will be switched off, it will be advisable to move out until the work is completed.

Ensure That Your House Is Safe From Water Leaks

Is your house safe from water leaks? Remember, water and electricity have never mixed well. Ensure that your house is properly waterproofed. This is important especially during the winter or seasons of heavy rain. Water dripping from an electrical service panel can cause electrocution. Ensure that you inform the electrician before they start working in order to prepare him and also prevent any injuries

What Are Your Future Electrical Needs?

Are you looking to transform your home into a smart home in the future? Start planning for it now. Remember, if you intend to have a tech-friendly home with state of the art tech gadgets and smart home products, your electrical circuits will need to be good enough for the job. Any existing wiring that is either outdated or no longer meets your home’s power needs will need to be replaced.  Before calling the electrician, identify all the areas in your home where you will need an extra phone socket or speakers and have them marked out before your electrician arrives.

Water Testing Pros And Cons

Water testing

Water testing is a broad description for various procedures used to analyze water quality. Millions of water quality tests are carried out daily to fulfill regulatory requirements and to maintain safety

Testing may be performed to evaluate:

ambient or environmental water quality – the ability of a surface water body to support aquatic life as an ecosystem. See Environmental monitoring, Freshwater environmental quality parameters and Bioindicator.

wastewater – characteristics of polluted water (domestic sewage or industrial waste) before treatment or after treatment. See Environmental chemistry and Wastewater quality indicators.

“raw water” quality – characteristics of a water source prior to treatment for domestic consumption (drinking water). See Bacteriological water analysis and specific tests such as turbidity and hard water.

“finished” water quality – water treated at a municipal water purification plant. See Bacteriological water analysis and Category:Water quality indicators.

suitability of water for industrial uses such as laboratory, manufacturing or equipment cooling. See purified water.

Department of Homeland Security

The U.S. Department of Homeland Security is a cabinet department of the United States federal government, created in response to the September 11 attacks, and with the primary responsibilities of protecting the United States of America and U.S. territories (including protectorates) from and responding to terrorist attacks, man-made accidents, and natural disasters. See United States Department of Homeland Security.

The Homeland Security Presidential Directive 7 designates the Environmental Protection Agency as the sector-specific agency for the water sector’s critical infrastructure protection activities. All Environmental Protection Agency activities related to water security are carried out in consultation with the Department of Homeland Security. Possible threats to water quality include contamination with deadly agents, such as cyanide, and physical attacks like the release of toxic gaseous chemicals.

The principal U.S. federal laws governing water testing are the Safe Drinking Water Act and the Clean Water Act. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issues regulations under each law specifying analytical test methods. EPA’ s annual Regulatory Agenda sets a schedule for specific objectives on improving its oversight of water testing

Water Quality Testing

In many parts of the world, water is not safe enough to drink. There are basic qualitative observations that quickly determine if water is not safe to consume. However, there are also many “invisible” substances that must be tested for professionally to identify the contaminants and to figure out how the specific polluted water can be purified. Testing can be done in the field with portable test kits or mobile laboratories. Water samples can also be collected and sent to a professional laboratory.


Provides clean water and protects human health

Many types of equipment are easy to handle and provide quick results


Equipment can be expensive

Some parts of the testing kits and laboratories are very sensitive and must be handled carefully

Needs trained labourers or even experts

Water is in continuous movement on, above, and below the surface of the earth. As water is recycled through the earth, it picks up many things along its path. Water quality will vary from place to place, with the seasons, and with the various kinds of rock and soil it moves through.

For the most part, it is largely natural processes that affect water quality. For instance, water moving through underground rocks and soils may pick up natural contaminants, even with no human activity or pollution in the area. In addition to nature’s influence, water is also polluted by human activities, such as open defecation, dumping garbage, poor agricultural practices, and chemical spills at industrial sites (see also water source protection).

Testing Your Drinking Water

Reasons to Test Your Drinking Water

Homeowners using this type of water supply should consider having it tested for the following reasons:

Unlike public water systems, private water supply testing is the voluntary responsibility of the homeowner. There are no government agencies or programs that routinely test private water systems for homeowners.

Surveys indicate that about half of the private water supplies have never been tested.

Additional studies have found that about 50 percent of private water systems fail at least one drinking water standard.

Many pollutants found in private water systems have no obvious symptoms and can only be detected through laboratory testing.

Water testing is generally economical and convenient with many testing laboratories located throughout the state.

Water testing provides vital information to document the quality of your drinking water. Data from previous tests may be necessary if you ever need to prove in court that a nearby land use has damaged your drinking water quality.

The only way homeowners can be certain that their water is safe to drink is to have the water tested periodically.

Tests to Have Done Routinely

While it is possible to have a water supply tested for many things, such a test is very expensive and unnecessary. Instead, homeowners should focus testing on a few standard parameters along with additional tests related to nearby land uses.

Private water supplies should be tested every year for total coliform bacteria and E. coli bacteria. Coliform bacteria includes a large group of many types of bacteria that occur throughout the environment. They are common in soil and surface water and may even occur on your skin. Large numbers of certain kinds of coliform bacteria can also be found in waste from humans and animals. Most types of coliform bacteria are harmless to humans, but some can cause mild illnesses and a few can lead to serious waterborne diseases.

If coliform bacteria are found in a water supply, a follow-up test can be done by the laboratory to look for E. coli–a type of coliform bacteria found only in human or animal wastes. A positive E. coli result is much more serious than coliform bacteria alone because it indicates that human or animal waste is entering the water supply.

Drinking water should be tested for pH and total dissolved solids (TDS) every three years. These tests are similar to a doctor taking your temperature–they are general tests that provide an index to the quality of your drinking water.

Water Quality Tests

Water Quality Tests:

Dissolved Oxygen

This test is the most important of the nine water quality tests to measure water’s ability to support plants and animals. There are many different factors that affect the amount of dissolved oxygen in water, the main one being temperature. As temperature rises, less gas will dissolve.


Turbidity measures water clarity, which allows sunlight to penetrate to a greater depth. The main sources of turbidity are erosion, living organisms, and those from human endeavors

Total Solids

Total solids measures both dissolved and suspended solids. There are six major types of total solids; silt, clay, soil runoff, plankton, industrial waste, and sewage.

Ph Level

The PH of water is important to aquatic life. If the PH falls below 4 or above 9 everything is dead.

Temperature and Flow Rate

Temperature is a very important part of a river’s ecology. There are many natural and human factors that can affect a river’s temperature. Human factors include industry, development, and dams. To measure temperature and flow rate you must find two places along the river that are about 1.6 kilometers apart that have the same conditions, then two people measure the temperature at approximately the same time. If the difference is greater than 2 degrees Celsius, then there is thermal pollution. To find flow rate you use a buoyant object, we used an orange, and float it down the river.


Nitrogen is necessary for plant and animal life. Water is tested for nitrates to monitor and control eutrofication , which causes more plant growth and decay.

Fecal Coliform

This nasty stuff is a certain bacteria that propagate in the digestive tracts of humans and animals. They coexist with other bacteria so they are often used as indicators of possible pathogenic contamination. There are many ways fecal coliform can enter a waterway such as animal waste, untreated sewage, combined sewage overflow, and septic tanks.

Biochemical Oxygen Demand

BOD is a measure of oxygen removed from an aquatic environment by aerobic microorganisms. It measures levels of organic pollution in lakes and streams.


Phosphates is a nutrient needed in growth. The phosphate ion is found in shells, bones, and in animal teeth. By removing phosphorous from sewage the amount of phosphate ions in the water will be lowered.

Water testing

Good drinking water is very important to keep animals healthy. But what is good drinking water? Animal Health tests various aspects of water, such as the microbial count (colony forming units), content levels of various minerals and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). But the main test carried out by Animal Health is the one for suitability as livestock drinking water. Water testing at Animal Health is based upon on three pillars

water must be available at the location where the animals drink: the pipes cannot be clogged up, the flow of the water from the nipple must be good if the animal wants to drink;

water must not be harmful – this speaks for itself, as the production, growth and health of the animal must not endangered;

water must be tasty, i.e. the animals are willing to drink the water.

Nowadays the quality of products meant for human consumption (meat, eggs, milk) is being increasingly monitored. These products must be of a high and unsuspicious quality. The water the animals drink must not threaten the quality of the meat. Animal Health analyses water designated for livestock drinking water. The results show to what extent the above mentioned criteria are met.

Drinking water tests

The main thing a livestock farmer wants to know about the water at his farm, is its suitability as livestock drinking water. If the water is not suitable, Animal Health gives advice on options for improving the quality. For water testing, Animal Health has created what it refers to as drinking water packages. A water sample is subjected to many tests: e.g. chemical, bacteriological and organoleptical tests. Individual tests for water samples are possible as well, and individual packages can be created too. Water testing is a fine example of the versatility of Animal Health. The results of various laboratory departments that test the water are combined. That gives a complete picture of the suitability as drinking water. The advice that is linked to the results is specific for every submitted sample.

Techniques used for water testing include the following;

Ion chromatography: a chemical compound is used to separate ions such as nitrate, chlorine, and sulphate, and then they are measured using UV detection.

ICP: for metals and minerals (induced coupled plasma: the sample is dissolved in an acid environment and this acid is atomised in argon plasma of 10,000 °C; then metals and minerals emit specific light that is detected by a chip).

Automated colorimetric methods: some tests are carried out using a colorimetric method (ammonium, nitrite) in accordance with the Standardised NEN methods prescribed in the Netherlands.

Bacteriological testing

Tax Planning And Preparation Service Can Improve Profitability And Prevent Tax Audits

Reduce the Cost of College Thru Proper Tax Planning

SHORTER DAYS AND COOLER temperatures mean summer is coming to an end. Football season is kicking off, and millions of students across America are heading back to school. While some are already dreaming of a white Christmas, others are poring over their budgets trying to figure out how to pay for college.

For many, the cost of higher education can be offset by federal income tax credits. Like seemingly everything else in the tax code, tax breaks are complicated and require advance planning and coordination by students and parents alike. Here’s what families with college-bound students need to know about filing taxes.

Federal income tax credits can offset the costs of higher education by up to $2,500 per student per year. Of course, the student, expenses and educational institution all must meet certain criteria. Here are a few definitions:

Qualified education expenses can include tuition, books, fees and some other costs required for enrollment or attendance at an eligible educational institution. The costs of being away from home, such as room, board and transportation are not allowable expenses for the purposes of these credits.

Get familiar with education tax credits. There are two main education credits, the American Opportunity Tax Credit, commonly called the AOTC, and the Lifetime Learning Credit. Most students paying qualified education expenses at an eligible educational institution will be able to apply for one of these credits.

Tax Planning – Family and Education Related Opportunities


The increasing costs of higher education have made education planning an important aspect of personal financial planning. Frequently, education planning does not receive proper attention because cash outlays may not be incurred for many years and are low on the priority list. Often, families have made mental commitments to a certain standard of education for their children but have done little planning for when the tuition bill arrives. This tendency to postpone the issue may eliminate several effective education funding strategies that offer opportunities for tax reduction and financial gain when implemented early.


Many of the strategies discussed include shifting income or assets to children. For clients who may be eligible for college financial aid, this strategy can have a negative impact on the amount of such aid, since a greater percentage of a child’s income and assets is considered in financial aid formulas than if such income and assets were attributable to the parents. However, high-income families may be eligible for little, if any, financial aid, so strategies that maximize the family’s available college funds may be the best overall plan.

Some Possible Opportunities:

  • Employing a child in the family business,
  • Gifting appreciated property to a child,
  • Using trusts, partnerships, & S-corporations to shift income to children
  • Funding for future college costs using 529 savings accounts, Roth and/or traditional IRA accounts, and U.S. Savings Bonds.

Choose a College Wisely

The decision to attend a particular college has major ramifications on the total cost of education. For example, a high school student in Texas might attend a smaller public university such as Midwestern University (estimated total cost of $7,952 per year), a large public university, such as the University of Texas at Austin (approximately $26,400 annually), or a private school such as Southern Methodist University (estimated annual cost of $57,755).

While these estimates do not take financial aid into consideration, they do reflect the disparity between different educational environments. All three schools are fully accredited and all three schools regularly send graduates on to advanced degree programs, such as law or medical school.

Careers that require advanced degrees may depend less on the choice of undergraduate college and more on the mastery of standardized tests, such as:

  • Graduate Record Examination (GRE)
  • Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT)
  • Law School Admission Test (LSAT)
  • Medical College Admission Test (MCAT)

Tapping Tax-Free College Savings

You can take tax-free distributions for qualified education expenses from your child’s 529 college savings plan or Coverdell Education Savings Account. You can use tax-free withdrawals from Coverdell ESAs and 529 college savings plans in the same year as the Hope or Lifetime Learning credits as long as you don’t use them for the same expenses. (See 529 Plan FAQs)

Tax-Free Savings Bond Interest

Interest earned on EE or I savings bonds issued after 1989 is tax free if the bond is used for college tuition and fee. For 2014, the tax break starts to phase out at a modified adjusted gross income of $113,950 for married taxpayers filing jointly and at $76,000 for single filers. The break disappears completely when adjusted gross income is $143,950 for couples filing jointly and $91,100 for single filers. The tax-free provision cannot be combined with other educational tax breaks so, for example, expenses paid with tax-free interest don’t count when figuring the American Opportunity or Lifetime Learning credit.

An overview of the American opportunity tax credit

The AOTC can produce a tax benefit for an individual taxpayer by creating a combination of nonrefundable and refundable tax credits totaling as much as $2,500. Under Sec. 25A, these credits are available to a taxpayer who is an eligible student or who claims a dependent who is an eligible student. Eligible students include persons who are seeking a postsecondary degree, certificate, or other recognized postsecondary educational credential and are enrolled at least part time at a qualified educational institution. They must also have not completed their first four years of postsecondary education, not claimed the credit for more than four tax years, and not have a felony drug conviction at the end of the tax year.

The credits are calculated based on required tuition, fees, and course materials (together called qualified educational expenses, or QEE) paid for by cash, check, credit card, or debit card or through loans. When the expenses are for a dependent child, the credit can be claimed on the parents’ return if the parents, the child, or a third party is paying the QEE.4 The first $2,000 in QEE create a $2,000 credit, and the next $2,000 create a credit equal to 25% of QEE in excess of the first $2,000. In total, $4,000 in QEE can result in a $2,500 credit, of which the first $1,500 is nonrefundable and the remaining amount, up to $1,000, is refundable

Reasons To Schedule House Cleaning Services

Equipment needed for House Keeping

To keep the hospital clean and hygienic various equipments and supplies are used. No work can be done without proper equipment. It is important that the housekeeper make a careful selection of equipment based on suitability for use in a health care institution, appropriate design and required size, rugged construction and finish, ease and availability of maintenance, initial and operating costs, on-the-job tested performance, safety, and overall efficiency. Supplies should also be studied, and basic procedures developed to use these supplies most effectively in maintaining desired standards of cleanliness

Housekeeping property is broadly classified as either equipment or supplies. Items classified as supplies are consumables, and equipment is reusable. Thus, floor machines, brooms, mops, stools, vacuum machines, etc, are categorized as equipment, whereas dusters, detergents, germicides, etc. are supplies.

Purchasing equipment: It is poor economy to buy less than high quality, timesaving equipment. It is also poor economy to buy good equipment and let it lay idle or to buy a product of better quality than is actually needed. If budget restrictions require it, expensive equipment can be programmed over the course of several years.

Selecting new equipment is the responsibility of the housekeeper. Advice may be obtained from the purchasing agent, maintenance superintendent, laundry manager, microbiologist, or other personnel, but the final decision rests with the housekeeper. In order to ensure that no wrong purchase is made, the housekeeper needs to do independent research in the market and on the job. A general checklist can be formulated to help the housekeeper and other personnel involved in the purchase of the equipment to remember every factor pertinent to the purchase of the equipment. The housekeeper also needs to evaluate a product before purchase. Very often the employees who use the product are the best people to consult for this.

Maintaining equipment: When an employee is provided with high quality equipment, he must be trained in its proper care in use and in storage. All equipment should also be inspected daily by the housekeeper or his representative for cleanliness, indications of wear and tear, neglect or abuse. Periodic detailed inspection should be made to forestall breakdowns.

what can i ask my cleaner to do

Cleaning businesses come in many shapes and sizes. There are sole traders who work alone, there are cleaning businesses who employ staff members, cleaning agencies who use self-employed cleaners, and cleaning franchises, that are part of a larger National or International cleaning brand/company.

What does a cleaner do?

Generally, cleaners will all undertake the following cleaning tasks and duties during a domestic clean:

High and low-level dusting

Cleaning of bathrooms

Cleaning of kitchen



Dusting and polishing of shelves, picture frames, units etc.

Some cleaners will also offer the following:

Change bedding

Empty all internal bins, including main kitchen waste


Washing of dishes/loading of dishwashers

What other things is it okay to ask a cleaner to do?

This will depend on the type of cleaning service you use and the relationship you hold with them. Generally, it is okay and within limits, to ask the following:

Polishing silver or brass

Cleaning of internal windows

Washing and special care cleaning of ornaments

To fold washing and put it away

Help you de-clutter

Tidy up an area

Please note that you may be charged for additional time for extra tasks, or you may have to forfeit areas of your regular cleaning schedule if you are adding extra tasks to the list for your cleaner to do (remember they are only human!)

The correct order to clean your house efficiently

Do you struggle with cleaning your home? Does is matter what order you clean your house? The answer is, defiantly yes. If you haven’t cleaned your house in a while then doing anything will probably help. However, if you clean your house or apartment regularly, and want to save time, then there is definitely a right way to do it. You can read more about how to create a weekly cleaning schedule in our next post.

You need to create a system to clean your house that works for you.

Everyone is different and has different priorities. When you clean your house, you need to consider what is important to you and how much time you have to do it. We all tend to want to do the worst things last but often it’s better to get them out of the way right at the beginning.

Start with the cleaning tasks that require chemicals to soak in, or that can be going while you do other things

For example, you can start by stacking and running the dishwasher, spray oven cleaner in your oven, start a load of laundry, or pour bleach into your toilet. All of these things either work while you’re cleaning, or make cleaning easier when you get to these parts of your house.

Clean from the top down

There’s nothing worse than cleaning something and then having to clean it again. When you dust your house, the dust will fall and settle on tables, bench-tops, and the floor. If you do this last, you’ll find yourself re-cleaning these surfaces after you’ve dusted. Work with gravity, not against it!

Tidy first, then clean

For each room, it will be much easier to clean if you don’t have a bunch of junk in your way. That’s why thee best order to clean your house is by removing clutter and tidying before you get your hands dirty.

What Equipment & Resources Do I Need to Start My Cleaning Business?

List of Basic Cleaning Supplies

Now that you’ve done your market research and determined the type of cleaning business you want to start, it’s time to get shopping for the basics! Not every cleaning company will require the same products as it depends on what exactly you’ll be cleaning but a few ideas to get you started include:

Sponges and scourers.

Yellow dusters/microfibre cloths.

Glass polishing cloths.

Cleaning brushes.

A mop and bucket.

A dustpan and brush.

Protective gloves.

A plastic caddy to carry the essentials.

Of course this is just a basic list and is best suited towards a domestic cleaning business. If you have chosen to operate a commercial or specialised cleaning business then you may also need specialist equipment such as vacuums, pressure washers or hoses.

Bigger companies, or those that are required to travel between locations, will also need to consider their transport arrangements. You could think about using your own car or you could hire or purchase a company van to get from place to place. Don’t forget that this will be an extra outgoing cost for your business.

And where would a cleaning company be without their cleaning products? If you’re a domestic or commercial cleaner first you need to determine:

Are you bringing your own cleaning products to a job?

Will the client be providing you with their own products to use?

Some clients will prefer to provide their own cleaning chemicals if they have particular preferences or if they’re allergic to certain ingredients. Always find out in advance of the job whether this is the case. It’s a good idea to have a supply of basics to hand regardless though just in case what you’re using runs out or if there’s been an oversight and the client isn’t actually supplying their own.

cleaning tools you should always have in your home

We rarely think about this but most cleaning tools have been around for years. The basic cleaning tools are those that are simple, inexpensive and that barely changed in our lifetime. These legendary tools include

Every house should have a broom. It is an object that comes in handy even before you move into the house. There are several types of brooms, each serving a specific purpose. For example, fiber brooms are great for surfaces like wood or marble white straw brooms are less gentle and are usually useful in outdoor spaces. What few people know is that the broom should be stores upside down so that the fibers don’t lose their shape.

A while ago we used to clean our floor on our hands and knees. But ever since the mop was invented, this task is much easier. Like the broom, there are several different types: the string mop, useful for cement surfaces, spring mop and, of course, the self-wringing mop.

They might not look fancy, but rags are very useful for cleaning anything from walls and floors to upholstery and appliances. Use something that absorbs water for better results. Cotton rags are particularly great for cleaning the windows.

Some chores can’t be done without rubber gloves. Well, they can, but our hands would have to suffer. So don’t be brave and use them. They are particularly helpful when using harsh cleaners that irritate the skin or toxic substances. To make putting them on easier you can sprinkle some powder in the inside.

Computers And Eye Care

Why does eyesight get weak?

Few people are totally without sight. Most people who are classified as “blind” actually have remaining sight. Thanks to developments in low vision rehabilitation, they can enhance their visual function and improve their quality of life.

Anyone with uncorrectable, reduced vision is visually impaired. Uncorrectable means vision that is not further improved by spectacles or contact lenses, it does not mean vision when not wearing glasses.

The World Health Organization uses the following classifications of visual impairment. When the vision in the better eye with the best possible glasses correction is:

20/30 to 20/60, this is considered mild vision loss, or near-normal vision.

20/70 to 20/160, this is considered moderate visual impairment, or moderate low vision.

20/200 or worse, this is considered severe visual impairment, or severe low vision.

20/500 to 20/1000, this is considered profound visual impairment or profound low vision.

Less than 20/1000, this is considered near-total visual impairment or near-total low vision.

No light perception, this is considered total visual impairment, or total blindness.

There are also levels of visual impairment based on visual field loss (loss of peripheral vision).

In the United States, any person with vision that cannot be corrected to better than 20/200 in the best eye, or who has 20 degrees or less of visual field remaining, is considered legally blind.

Visual impairments take many forms and exist in varying degrees. Visual acuity alone is not a good predictor of a person’s vision problems. Someone with relatively good acuity (20/40) can have difficulty functioning, while someone with worse acuity (20/200) might not have any real problems performing daily activities.

Conditions that cause bad eyesight

Bad eyesight, or blurred vision, is most commonly caused by a refractive error like nearsightedness (myopia), farsightedness (hyperopia) or astigmatism. Refractive errors develop when the eye is unable to focus light directly on the retina.

This inability to focus stems from imperfections in the eye’s length, corneal curvature and/or internal lens curvature. The refractive error you experience depends on which anatomical flaw your eyes have.

For example, eye length is normally associated with farsightedness, corneal curvature is linked to astigmatism and lens curvature can determine nearsightedness or farsightedness.

Amblyopia (lazy eye) — caused by a lack of communication between the eyes and the brain — is another condition that can cause poor eyesight. The brain is supposed to receive visual signals from both eyes, but in young patients with amblyopia, the brain ignores signals from one of the eyes.

If caught early, amblyopia can be treated very successfully, but if left untreated, it can cause permanent vision loss.

Presbyopia: Experiencing blurred vision after age 40 is often an indication of presbyopia, or age-related farsightedness. As your eyes age, the lenses that used to focus on up-close images become stiff, making it difficult to adapt and causing your near vision to blur.

Most of these vision conditions are very common and are easily corrected with glasses or contact lenses. Eye diseases, however, aren’t always a quick fix.

5 Everyday Habits That Are Hurting Your Vision

Your eyesight is precious. Stop squandering it.

Here are the things you should stop doing ASAP to help keep your peepers as healthy as possible.

1. Forgetting to wear sunglasses

Extensive UV exposure can damage the retina and ultimately put you at risk for a few major eye conditions like cataracts or abnormal growths. It’s so important to wear UV-blocking sunglasses while outside to avoid damage. So, dig those sunnies out of your bag every time you head outside—it’s even more important than you realize. If you wear contacts, choosing a brand with UV protection can add an extra layer of defense

2. Wearing old contact lenses

While it might seem harmless to wear those one-day contact lenses on day two, you’re increasing your chances of an infection. People tend to keep their contact lenses in their eyes much longer than the contacts are intended, especially one-a-days. Sleeping in your contacts, sharing contacts with others, or not switching your contact case every few weeks are all major offenses when it comes to keeping your eyes healthy and avoiding vision-blurring infections.

3. Rubbing your eyes

It may give you a moment of relief, but you’re also spreading dirt and bacteria into your eyes when you rub them. You transfer germs into your eyes this way, classically bacteria that causes pink eye. Eye rubbing has been linked to permanent corneal damage—like disorders known as keratoconus in which the cornea thins and begins to bulge outward—and it can also break the fragile vessels around the eye. It’s also important to note that if you feel something in your eye, trying to rub it away can possibly dig the debris in deeper. Instead, try to blink rapidly so that your tears wash it away. If that doesn’t work, put in a few eye drops to flush out the eye.

4. Wearing contacts in the pool or shower

“Wearing your contacts in any form of water—the ocean, a pool or even the shower—can allow bacteria, or in severe cases, even something called an acanthamoeba, into the eye. This microorganism lives in fresh water and soil, and though it’s rare, can cause a serious infection—even permanent damage or blindness—if it gets in your eye. Something like this not only causes infections, but can also cause serious damage to your vision as well.

5. Using expired eye makeup

While it might physically pain you to throw out your favorite mascara when only half the tube is used, it’s a necessary evil if it’s past its prime. Using expired eye makeup can irritate your contacts or cause a nasty eye infection. According to the American Academy of Ophthalmology, eye makeup should be thrown away after three months. Some experts say six to nine is OK for mascara, and longer for eye shadows, but it’s better to err on the safe side. A good rule of thumb is that when it gets clumpy, it’s time to throw it out. Don’t add water—it’ll just give bacteria an even cozier place to set up shop.

Signs that your Eyesight is getting Weak

Healthy eyes are a blessing that should not be taken for granted, pay close attention to any symptoms of weakening eyesight.  A healthy eyesight or 20/20 vision is vital to living a successful and prosperous life; we can’t even begin to imagine where we would be without our eyesight. Blindness is a debilitating and deeply traumatic health consequence. This is essentially why it is so important that you never take your eyesight for granted.

The best way to ensure good eye health is by eating foods rich in carotene and other antioxidants that will protect our eyes from the oxidative damage caused by free radical cells. Incorporating foods such as leafy green vegetables, carrots, and sea food is necessary for eye health.

Symptoms of a weakening eye sight are quite clearly felt, and as soon as you begin experiencing the symptoms it is strongly advised that you immediately go to an optometrist. Here are a few of the things you should look out for:

1. Blurry vision

The sharpness with which we can focus on an object either far or near is the sign of healthy eyesight. The opposite of this is when we suddenly look at something and the image appears blurry and takes time to come into focus is a sign that the eye is no longer performing to its full capacity. This is an indication for weakening eyesight.

2. Glare

If you are forced to shield your eye, even when the sun’s rays aren’t that powerful then your eyes have become very sensitive the sun’s glare as well as reflected light. It is important that you immediately see a doctor. This problem can be due to farsightedness, nearness, cataracts or other eye issues.

3. Double vision

This is when you experience seeing two of the same objects. This can be a sign of severely damaged eyesight and needs to be examined immediately. This can begin in one or both eyes and may the result of cataracts, astigmatism and irregularly shaped cornea. This can pose difficulties in performing the simplest of tasks, and is quite common in college students.

4. Squinting

Having difficulty determining something from afar, or do you have trouble reading what’s in front of you? If you need to constantly narrow your eyes to read something then your eyesight may be rapidly weakening. Squinting helps the eye focus by narrowing the curvature of the light entering your eye. This can be due to the eyeball changing shape or change in the structure of the cornea.

5. Headaches

Headaches can often be a result of stress or strain that we place on our eyes while trying to focus or squint. Blurry vision or seeing double forces you to place undue strain on your eyes leading to severe headaches.

Why Does My Vision Keep Getting Worse?

It can be discouraging when your vision exam results show you need a stronger prescription. This is especially true if you are careful to always wear your glasses when you need them, whether it is just while reading or all the time. After an exam, hearing that your vision is now worse isn’t the news you were hoping for.

Don’t get upset and blame your glasses though. There are many reasons why your eyes don’t see quite as well as they did at your last vision test. And none of them have to do with your glasses.

Growing Up…

The eyes change shape in order to focus incoming light on the correct spot on the retina. However, children’s eyeballs are still small and aren’t finished growing to their full adult size yet. This limits the flexibility of the eye and inhibits its ability to focus. It is fairly common for children to be farsighted because of this. As their bodies and eyes grow, their near vision can actually improve.

Vision changes due to eye growth are more apparent if they are wearing eyeglasses already. The continued development of the eyes in children means they will also need to update their prescription eyeglasses more often than an adult. Their lenses may become too weak even within a few months if they are going through a growth spurt.

…or Growing Old

Aging again becomes a factor in deteriorating vision after age 40. As you get older, along with the rest of your body, your eyes lose elasticity which weakens their ability to focus. In order to see objects close up, the eyes contract and the lens thickens, which makes the lens of the eye more convex. The reduced elasticity due to aging makes it more difficult for your eyes to shape themselves properly to look at things near to them, like when reading a book. Because the eye can’t compensate for this, corrective lenses are needed.

Tiredness and Eye Strain

Sometimes, weak vision is temporary. Blurry vision that goes away on its own may be caused by eye strain, not an out-of-date prescription. Noticing that your eyes feel tired, itchy, too dry, or too watery are some other signs. When doing something strenuous for your eyes, such as using a computer, taking frequent breaks about every 20 minutes to focus your eyes on something else will relieve the stress.

It’s Not Your Glasses

A common myth is that wearing glasses will make your eyes weaker. The idea behind this is that, because the lenses are doing the focusing work, your eyes can become “out of shape” due to lack of practice resulting in becoming dependent on the glasses to see at all.

It is actually because your eyes are (literally) out of shape that you need vision correction in the first place. Common vision problems, like near or far-sightedness, are caused by the shape of your eyeball being too long or too short which prevents the incoming light from focusing on the correct spot in your eye. All the eyeglass lenses are doing is redirecting the light where it needs to go, depending on what vision issue you have.

Buying Truck Tires On The Web

Feel Safe With the Right Truck Tires

Security is the most vital aspect in regards to tires on any car. Especially for heavy load vehicles, like buses and trucks, security concerns are somewhat more than other vehicles such as an automobile, bikes, etc. As you know, the majority of the states are busy with hauling vital goods from one area to another, and all this can be done with the support of trucks. Trucks carry hefty loaded products from one area to another; hence the tires of every automobile ought to be the highest quality when it comes to performance and safety.

Be certain you compare several truck tire shops so that you may make the difference and discover the very best shop from where you find the best bargain. Some stores provide a hefty discount on tire manufacturers. You may even start looking for used tires which are in good shape and have never been used much. This won’t only help save your money, but you also receive an innovative experience of buying the ideal truck tire out of the marketplace. A perfect pair of brakes installed on the vehicle is only going to add useful functionality and surety of security rather than beauty and glow.

The first and the foremost part that requires consideration is the truck for which you’re eager to buy a vehicle because unless and until you are not mindful of your automobile, you can’t pick the ideal pair of tires for this. Once you choose the correct tires, it’s crucial to give appropriate care, maintenance, and service to the truck in addition to tries to keep their right level of functionality. Standard support won’t only offer decent functionality but may also help your truck tire appear excellent, shiny and clean. A failing truck may severely damage your entire vehicle components, so be shielded by picking out the ideal truck tires and supply proper maintenance so much time as possible.

When you visit any truck bicycle shop, you’ll be requested with what type of truck you drive and for which sort of truck, you require truck tires since there are plenty of truck tires available in the industry these days with various types of program like emergency automobile and long haul truck, combined service truck, pickup/delivery truck, school bus or utility car.

The Right Tires For Towing A Trailer

There are a few different classifications used to discuss a tire’s ability to hold air pressure and carry weight. Load range is a classification that is represented by a letter (B, C, D, E, ect.) which gives you an idea of how tough and durable the tire is, how much air the tire can hold, and how much weight it can carry.

Higher load ranges means that the tire can carry heavier loads.  As the alphabet ascends, so does the amount of weight the tire can carry.

It is also important to consider the speeds at which the tire is rated for. Most C-E rated tires are only rated for a maximum speed of 65 MPH.  If you expect to exceed this speed then you run the risk of blowing a tire.

So, if you plan on traveling faster than 65 MPH, look into tires that are rated at a higher speed (this also ensures that you are able to keep up with interstate speeds if your tow vehicle and trailer permit).

Most common is the load range E tires which are specifically designed for long distance travels with a decent amount of cargo. These tires offer a comfortable ride under the stress of heavy loads and are designed to take on multiple driving scenarios (city streets, highways, and off-road conditions).

Load carrying capacity is the next classification to consider. The goal for choosing the right tire is to match the tire’s load-carrying capacity (LCC) to your vehicle, with hauling/towing in mind. Three things to keep in mind are: the LCC of a tire is determined by its operating temperature, higher speed means more heat and therefore a lower LCC. 

Weight also increases heat and decreases LCC. Load index indicates how much weight a tire can carry and indicates the load carrying capacity when the tire is inflated to the maximum pressure. Both the load range and load index can be found on the tire’s sidewall.

A Wrong and Right Way to Mount Truck Tires

It’s one thing to wrestle the tire onto a wheel, air it up, and mount it on the truck. It’s quite another to make sure it’s concentrically mounted, the hub mounting face and the disc face of the rim are clean and rust-free, and the fasteners are properly torqued. Watch the folks servicing your tires to see if they are doing all this. If not, here are five things you might want to remind them are necessary for secure mounting, long tire life, and tire and wheel installer safety.

Tire mounting

Inspect the rim for signs of damage, distorted shape, excessive corrosion, or any damage or irregularities in the rim bead seat, including rim flange wear. Carefully examine the wheel for cracks and worn or distorted stud holes. The mounting face of the disc wheel should be thoroughly gone over with a stiff wire brush to remove any rust, flaked metal, old paint, dirt and debris, etc. so it will fit flush against the mounting face of the hub.

If the tire has a colored balance or runout dot on the sidewall, determine the meaning of the colored dot and mount the tire on the rim accordingly. Typically a yellow dot will align with the valve stem while a red dot will align with the dimple on steel wheels, but some tire makers use different colors.

With the rim and tire flat on the floor, apply a bead lubricant to help seat the tire. Never use a flammable liquid such as starting fluid to seat the tire bead to the rim. Inflate the tire to a minimum pressure to seal it and keep it in place on the rim.

Once the tire is firmly seated, check to see that the distance between the rim flange and the aligning ring is uniform around the complete circumference of the tire. With the bead seated against the rim, the distance from the seating ring to the rim should be measured at four different points that are 90 degrees apart around the rim. The distance between the ring and the rim should be the same at all four points.

Tire inflation

With the bead seated against the rim, the distance from the seating ring to the rim should be measured at four different points that are 90 degrees apart around the rim. – Photo: Michelin

With the bead seated against the rim, the distance from the seating ring to the rim should be measured at four different points that are 90 degrees apart around the rim.

Technicians should verify the desired inflation pressure with either the tire manufacturer’s load and inflation table or the fleet’s preferred inflation pressure, usually based on tire type and wheel position. Before the tire is inflated, it must be rolled into an inflation cage for the safety of the installer and everyone else in proximity to the tire.

Wheel mounting

As with the mounting face on the wheel, ensure the hub mounting face is completely clean of old paint, rust, dirt, and other debris. Next, check and ensure the studs are not damaged, stretched, or badly corroded. The threads should be in good condition, have no paint or contaminants on them, and be the correct length and diameter for the type of wheel (aluminum or steel). The threads must match the nuts, e.g., metric or English sizing.

If you have to replace a damaged stud, the two adjacent studs should also be replaced. If you have two or more damaged studs, all 10 studs should be replaced with new hardware of the correct size and grade for the application.

Stud fastening

Before installing the nuts, place two or three drops of motor oil on the clean threads of the studs and one or two drops of motor oil between the washer and the nut on the two-piece flange nut. This reduces friction and allows you to achieve a desirable clamping force once the wheel is torqued down.

Ensure the two-piece flange nuts are in good condition and not seized between the nut and the flange. Run several nuts onto the studs using two or three drops of oil on the stud and between the washer and the nut on the two-piece flange nut. Use three or four nuts at light torque to hold the wheel in place on the hub and check for concentric mounting of the wheel on the hub. This will display as a high and low spot when rotating the wheel. Resolve the runout problem before installing and torqueing the remaining fasteners.

When mounting a pair of wheels in a dual assembly, ensure the diameter of the two tires is identical. Even a tiny difference can result in excessive scrubbing of the tires, causing premature wear.

Wheel nut torqueing

Verify the correct torque requirements for the wheel being installed. The Technology & Maintenance Council’s Recommended Practice 237A, Torque Checking Guidelines for Disc Wheels, shows torque fastener recommendations ranging from 300 to 900 ft-lbs., depending on the wheel type, fastener, and procedure.

Always use calibrated torque wrenches to torque lug nuts to manufacturer-recommended specifications. Following manufacturer’s recommendations on proper torque will reduce the chances of a wheel-off and vehicle damage.

Finally, check to ensure there is no side-to-side movement of the rotating assembly. Once the tire is installed, a runout gauge should be used to confirm the trueness of the wheel assembly.

Bat Trapping

The Pros and Cons of Bats

As the sun sets in the evening, you may have seen bats swooping low in your yard. Whether or not you like bats doesn’t really matter- they are out there and as long as they stay out of your hair, hopefully, you won’t have to deal with them! But there are some pros and cons of having bats on your property. Here are some of the pros and cons of bats in your backyard.

The Pros of Having Bats:

Bats are nature’s insect control. They eat mosquitoes all night long, also binging on moths, wasps, beetles, gnats, midges, mayflies and other insects. The little brown bat is one of the most common bats in North America and these insectivores can catch up to 600 insects an hour!

Guano, which is another name for bat droppings, can be beneficial for your garden! Guano is rich in nitrogen and is considered an excellent fertilizer. There are even some enzymes in bacteria in guano that scientists have found to be good when added to cleaning agents, including laundry soaps (we’ll leave that to the scientists to keep testing).

Bats are pollinators. They move pollen grains from flower to flower, which helps to pollinate flowers and plants.

Bats help distribute the seeds of many different kinds of plants, including bananas, mangoes, cashews, dates, avocados, peaches and figs, just to name a few.

The Cons of Having Bats:

Bats may take up residence in your home to raise their young. When they do this, they become a problem on your property, causing damage to your structure and leaving bat droppings throughout your attic and on your home.

Although not typical, bats can spread rabies. This disease can be dangerous for you and for your pets. They are not usually aggressive mammals but may bite if manhandled.

Bat guano can spread histoplasmosis. This illness primarily affects the lungs; it is spread by breathing in a fungus that grows in accumulated guano.

They can introduce other bugs into your home, like bat bugs.

Common Types of Bats

Common bats that people come into contact with include little brown bats and big brown bats. They are quite similar in appearance and behavior and as you can gather from their name, but big brown bats are the larger of the two. As mentioned before, bats are a great source of natural pest control to help control mosquito and other insect populations on your property. There is a lot of fear surrounding bats and their bites. Old myths of bats being related to vampires cause quite a bit of fear around these creatures. And while it is true that bats can bite and they can spread disease such as rabies, it does not mean that they are vampire-like creatures we should fear when outside. They will rarely attack a human unless provoked.

How to Inspect Your Home for Bats

To inspect your home thoroughly, pay attention to loose tiles, vents, chimneys, fascia boards, where soffits meet your roofline, and anywhere else there may be a hole. Bats can squeeze through the tiniest of spaces. Seal up all openings by using a caulking gun or by putting netting over vents and other similar openings.

Everything to Know About Bat Removal

Never seen a bat with your own two eyes? That’s probably because they are nocturnal. Covered by the black cloak of night, bats provide a very important service to our ecosystem by feeding on insects like mosquitoes, and bugs that damage crops like certain moths and beetles.

Unfortunately there is a housing crisis in the bat community, and they are desperately looking for a new place to stay. Bats usually live in caves or hollow trees, but those habitats are harder to come by than they used to be as a response to industrialization. This means that bats are actively searching for similar conditions to live in, which can oftentimes be your attic.

You’re Hearing Noises

The only noises you should be hearing from your attic are proper functioning of heating and air machines, and the natural fluctuation of the ductwork in your house as a response to changing temperatures throughout the day. Any scratching, banging, scurrying, or chirping is a tell-tale sign of wildlife living in the attic. Bats are known to communicate and search for food by making chirping sounds.

You’re Seeing Things

If you notice any bats flying around in the early morning or late night, that means there are definitely bats in your area. If your attic is left vulnerable they could find their way inside and make a home there.

You’re Finding Scratches, Stains, and Droppings

If your attic has been harboring bats, or other wildlife, you are likely to find the remains of their actions. Their droppings, or guano, will be littered all over and putting off a foul odor. Their scratching and scurrying is sure to leave marks in your home as well. They are also covered in a greasy coat that will leave grease stains around areas it touches in your home.

Frequently Asked Questions about Bats

Are bats mammals?

Yes, bats are mammals, as they are warm-blooded, give live birth, produce milk, and have fur. Bats have many unique features that truly set them apart from most other mammals, such as the ability to fly and use echolocation to navigate and find food at night.

Are bats blind?

No, bats are not blind. In fact, most bats can see very well. Coupled with a specialized honing sense called echolocation, they are fierce predators of insects.

How big are most bats?

Most bats are small, with body lengths of 2 to 3 inches, and with wing spans ranging from 8 to 15 inches. For example, it would take 10 tricolored bats, smallest bat, to equal the weight of 1 large chicken egg. While individuals of largest bat, the bonneted bat, would each weigh slightly less than a large chicken egg

When are bats most active?

All bats are nocturnal, which means they are active at night. They are easily seen at dusk or at night while foraging for insects. While it is uncommon to see a bat during the day, it is not unusual to hear them chirping within the roost

How long can bats live?

Most small mammals have very short lives (often only 1 year), but bats are the exception and have relatively long lives. One study showed that bats live on average about 4 years, while another study showed bats may live about 16 years on average. The maximum lifespan reported for bats in the wild is more than 30 years. But, we know lifespans of bats vary depending on the species and their life history. For example, bats that roost (sleep) in caves tend to live longer than bats that roost in trees. Bats that have more than one pup per litter tend to have shorter average lifespans than those with only one pup per litter.


Why are bats dying in North America?

An estimated 6.7 million bats have died since 2006 because of an outbreak of white-nose syndrome, a fast-moving disease that has wiped out entire colonies and left caves littered with the bones of dead bats. The epidemic is considered the worst wildlife disease outbreak in North American history and shows no signs of slowing down. It threatens to drive some bats extinct and could do real harm to the pest-killing services that bats provide, worth billions of dollars each year, in the United States.

What is white-nose syndrome, and how does it kill bats?

White-nose syndrome is the result of a fungus called Pseudogymnoascus destructans that invades and ingests the skin of hibernating bats, including their wings. It causes bats to wake up more frequently during the winter, using up their limited fat reserves very rapidly. Massive destruction of wing tissue may lead to disruption of bats’ water and electrolyte balance, and it could be the actual cause of death. Some bats may survive a winter with white-nose syndrome only to subsequently succumb in the spring, when their immune systems kick into overdrive, attacking the fungal invader and their own tissues at the same time. Dead or dying bats are frequently observed with a white fuzz around their muzzles, hence the name “white-nose syndrome.”

How deadly is it?

Typically the disease kills 70 percent to 90 percent of bats in an affected hibernaculum (the area where bats gather to hibernate for the winter). In some cases, the mortality rate has been 100 percent, wiping out entire colonies. Some caves that once hosted hundreds of thousands of bats are now virtually empty.

Does it affect all bats in North America?

So far, white-nose syndrome appears to affect only bats that hibernate, which make up about half of the 45 bat species in the United States. Pollinating bats and long-distance migrants that don’t hibernate don’t seem to be affected.

How many bat species have been affected, and which ones are they?

Thirteen species (including three on the federal endangered species list ) have been affected by the disease. The following species have been infected by white-nose syndrome: little brown bat (once the most common bat in the eastern United States), northern long-eared bat (threatened), tricolored bat, Indiana bat (endangered), the big brown bat, eastern small-footed bat, and gray bat (endangered).  The fungus has also been found on, but has not yet infected, a number of other species, including the cave bat

Are bats dangerous?

All healthy bats try to avoid humans by taking flight and are not purposely aggressive. Most bats are about the size of a mouse and use their small teeth and weak jaws to grind up insects. You should avoid handling bats because several species, such as the hoary and big brown bats, have large teeth that can puncture skin if they are handled improperly

Less than one percent of the bat population contracts rabies, which is a much lower rate of incidence than other mammals. Still, you should not handle or disturb bats, especially those that are active and appear sick during daylight hours. All bat bites should be washed immediately with soap and water, and a physician should be consulted.

Where do bats live?

Bats can be found in almost all parts of the world and in most regions of the United States. In general, bats seek out a variety of daytime retreats such as caves, rock crevices, old buildings, bridges, mines, and trees. Different species require different roost sites

Why are bats important?

By eating insects, bats save U.S. agriculture billions of dollars per year in pest control. Some studies have estimated that service to be worth over $3.7 billion per year, and possibly as much as $53 billion. This value does not, however, take into account the volume of insects eaten by bats in forest ecosystems and the degree to which tha

What do bats eat?

Bats are the most significant predators of night-flying insects. There are at least 40 different kinds of bats in the U.S. that eat nothing but insects. A single little brown bat, which has a body no bigger than an adult human’s thumb, can eat 4 to 8 grams (the weight of about a grape or two) of insects each night