Outdoor Electrical Lighting For The Great Outdoors

Outdoor Lighting: Guide to Illumination

Nights are not meant to stay only at home, but head outdoor for work or my time. To make this possible it is necessary to have quality outdoor lighting. Today, OUTDOOR LIGHT is not limited to home space but used by offices, stores and other areas where security at night is a concern. It offers an added advantage of enhancing looks of the place. Walk through this outdoor lighting guide to understand the different types of light, their application and more.

Flood Lights

To remove darkness from your walking path, nooks, and corners, you need to have flood light. It is a wide-spanning light that floods the large area with high-intensity light that saves people from falling and bumping into things in the dark. It is also referred to as security light since the broad beam leaves no scope for criminal activities such as robbery and damage. It is generally installed in parks, parking area, stadium, driveway, and aisle.

Things to consider

You can choose from the NORMAL FLOOD LIGHTS and LED FLOOD LIGHTS (latter being the better option). Before making a purchase, you must select the color of light and brightness well depending upon the place and purpose of installation

How to install?

Installation needs some effort irrespective of the brand you buy. Whether you are a professional or not, you need to follow these steps for easy installation

Read the installation manual received with the light

Select a high point for installation and a power source to turn in on/off

Drill hole for the electrical cable to pass through and connect with a power source

Do a testing after installation

Garden Light

Garden light or path light is the most common form of landscape light. It highlights the path to watch your step as you move in a private or public garden. GARDEN LIGHTS are of different forms such as wall lights installed on walls as lamps or post light installed on a small post in garden, driveway or a pond. These are generally installed for decorative purposes instead of focused lighting.

Things to consider

It entirely depends on you to choose from the post or wall lights. You can use both depending on the place of installation since both serve a different purpose. Also, check for the right style of garden light that is in sync with the garden our landscape design.

How to design the Perfect Outdoor Lighting Setting

It was only a hundred years or so ago that electrical lighting was a luxury, not something virtually everyone in the Western world enjoyed. Today, advancements in light bulb technology mean we can illuminate our homes using a fraction of the electricity of the past. But are we really limited to just brightening our homes? Landscape lighting is an increasingly common way for homeowners to brighten up their outdoor setting when the sun goes down

When done correctly, outdoor lighting can highlight the most attractive aspects of you home, help discourage intruders and even add value to the house itself. That said, it can also be done ham-fistedly, ruining an otherwise subtle and elegant effect. In this article we take a look at some ways you can illuminate your yard without going overboard, with exceptional results.


Sticking a bunch of superfluous lights into your background can be a wasteful process, which is why it’s important to consider the best forms of lighting for the job. Low voltage systems can draw a very low amount of power, making them environmentally conscious. Take the time to sit down and think about where the best spots to place the lights might be. Taking the time to plan a strategy won’t just make sure your system looks the best it can, it will also ensure you don’t end up placing too many separate lights around the place. In landscape lighting more is less. Too many separate light sources can start to look unnatural and will draw more power than necessary. Go for understatement rather than overstatement.


There is no specific norm when considering outdoor lighting: you can go as big or as small as you like. If you only want to illuminate a couple of walking paths or highlight a bush or two, then you may be able to avoid using mains connected electrical lighting entirely. Solar lighting fixtures can be a great alternative if your needs are not so extensive. They won’t shine quite as brightly as electrical lights, and on overcast days they may fail to light up at all. However if you live in a sunny area they are often highly effective. Their soft glow is very conducive to subtly illuminate a flower bed without muting colours.

Moonlight mimicking

This is related to the art of understatement. The most elegant effect to go for when designing an outdoor lighting feature is to mimic the look of moonlight. If done correctly this will have create a delicate, natural look and evoke feelings of serenity and pleasantness. A full moon can throw up dramatic shadow effects and even provide enough light to see by, so a system which mimics such an effect can be very desirable. Moonlight can add a huge level of atmosphere to an otherwise bland outdoor space.

How To Design Your 12 Volt Outdoor Lighting System


Fixture – a housing and the electrical components contained in that housing, a luminaire.

Lamp – a light bulb.

Transformer – an electrical power source; this device is required to operate any low voltage fixture, in this case 12-volts.

Circuit – a closed, usually circular electrical line that leaves a transformer (positive) and returns to the transformer (common)

Design Voltage – the amount of voltage a fixture is designed to operate on; the actual voltage that you supply may be more or less depending on the wiring method.

Fixture and Lamp Selection

The fixtures and lamps are selected after determining which features of your landscaping are to be used. Decorative fixtures will be placed in plain sight; otherwise, conceal the light source when possible.

Bullet/Directional Lights – These designs help focus and direct the light beams. Some also cut off glare and protect the lamp and socket from debris and moisture.

Area/Path/Bollard Lights – These low level units are designed to cast illumination in a broader pattern for: flower beds, perimeter plantings, driveways, steps and paths.

In-ground/Well Lights – Burying these fixtures flush with the ground conceals the light source. Use for up-lighting trees and shrubs, an grazing textured walls.

Accent/Spot Lights – Versatile/adjustable fixtures used for up-lighting, cross lighting, accenting and grazing. When mounted high up provide focused down-lighting and moonlighting.

Deck/Step/Brick Lights – These wall mount fixtures light pathways, steps, garden walks, deck and pool areas.

Incandescent lamps are the standard type commonly used around the home. They are inexpensive but yield less light than other bulbs. Halogen and Quartz lamps are a compact light source which provides a consistently bright light. These are available as a reflector (MR) and as a projector (PAR) type for controlling the direction of the light. These fit into smaller and less obtrusive fixtures.

Mounting Method

The mounting method is determined by the location of the fixture. Metal canopies allow you to mount fixtures to a deck or soffit, while plastic stakes are for mounting into the ground. There is an extensive variety of selection in mounting hardware, so check to see which kind is offered with your light fixture.

Power Cable

It is important to note that the cable referred to in this document is two-pronged; i.e., there are two independent wires inside. The cable lengths in your design will determine many further aspects of your lighting system. You want a cable wire that will deliver the best voltage to each individual fixture, and the best method for selecting this cable begins with a layout of your project. Be sure to include all landscape features, buildings, individual light fixtures, and power supplies in your drawing

How To Create A Landscape Lighting Installation Plan

Laying out an installation plan for a low voltage landscape lighting system is fairly straightforward, but it does require knowing a few things. This article covers the main steps and gives guidance and tips to ensure a successful installation.

The Basic Layout

There are four main components to a landscape lighting system.

Low Voltage Transformer. This is the power supply for the system. Ideally, it is mounted to a stand near the house, or attached directly to the structure – keep in mind the bottom of the transformer needs to be at least 12″ from the ground. Alternatively, the transformer could be located inside the house – usually the basement or garage. But running the wires through the wall requires the skills of an electrician since special codes apply. Outdoor installation is preferred.

Landscape Lighting Fixtures. These are, of course, the producers of light. They get their power from the transformer. Each lighting fixture contains a light source – either an integrated (built-in) LED source or a replaceable lamp (bulb). The lamp could be the older incandescent (usually halogen) type or it could be an LED lamp. The voltage supplied to the fixtures is critical and we will discuss that later.

Landscape Lighting Wire. This is the wire (cable) that connects the transformer (and supplies power) to the lighting fixtures. The wire is rated according to the size of its conductors. Selecting the proper size wire is one of the most important aspects of the lighting plan.

Splices. The wire from the transformer needs to connect to the wires from the fixtures. These connections can be made in several ways that involve any of various connector types


1. Start a Sketch. Most lighting designers begin their layout by creating a rough sketch of the property – or several sketches, one for each area. Try to be as accurate as possible with your sketch because you will be using it to help estimate distances for wire runs. You can use a blank piece of paper or graph paper. Attach this to a clipboard so you can walk the property and sketch as you go along.

2. Set Transformer Location. The best placement for the transformer is usually next to the house in a hidden location (behind a garden bed, near air conditioning equipment, etc.) It should be as close as possible to the fixture locations. Sometimes it makes sense to use more than one transformer – especially when fixtures are situated throughout a large property. If multiple transformers are used then create a separate plan for each one. Mark transformer locations on your sketch.

3. Set Fixture Locations. Before you install any fixtures in the property, mark their approximate positions in the landscape using small flags or pencils. Indicate the positions on your sketch and mark what fixture types will go at each location. As you walk the property, make rough measurements to indicate the distances between fixtures and the transformer, and between the fixtures themselves.

4. Determine Wire Runs. Now, the task is to plan how to provide power to the fixtures. There are many wiring methods available. You don’t want to run a single wire from each fixture to the transformer – 20 fixtures, 20 wires all ending at the transformer – that would waste a lot of wire. Instead, we minimize the total amount of wire by using one of the following wiring methods.

Daisy Chain. This method connects all fixtures like flowers on a chain (hence “Daisy Chain”). The first fixture connects to the transformer. The challenge with this method is that the voltage on this low-voltage current decreases with distance. That means the first fixture may have 12 volts while the last fixture may have 9 volts. That’s OK for VOLT LED lights because they have an acceptable voltage range of 8V to 15V. However, that would be a potential issue for halogen lights because they have a very narrow range (10V to 12V).

T-Method. This method is identical to the daisy chain except the transformer connects to a fixture in the middle of the chain. The overall voltage loss is the same but this method is used primarily to save on the amount of wire used in the project.

Hub Method. This method sends each wire run to a Hub Junction. From the junction, a single wire runs to each fixture. This was the preferred method for incandescent lights because it ensures equal voltage at all fixtures. Since LEDs have a wide range of acceptable voltage (8V t 15V), the Hub method is not preferred because it uses more wire than other methods. It does, however, dramatically reduce the number of splices in the field – a big time-saving advantage.

Combination Method. The preferred method for most LED systems because it combines the other methods to conserve wire, reduce splices, and make installations easier and faster. While this may seem to complicate things, it’s actually a simple approach

Tips on Selecting the best method:

Use the Hub Method when: Fixtures are grouped in a small area such as in a garden bed.

Use the Daisy Chain Method when: Fixtures are not grouped and can be easily connected in a chain. Note that you can consider a Hub just like a single fixture – put it into your daisy chain.

Use the T-Method when: You have built a daisy chain in the field and want to connect it to the transformer from the middle of the chain – at whatever point saves you the most wire.

Use the Combined Method when: You want to use any of the above methods in combination. You have a lot of flexibility with LED lighting systems – wide acceptable voltage range and low wattage – these make for minimal voltage loss and less concern about what method you use.

Outdoor Wall Lights

Outdoor wall lights shouldn’t just illuminate your home, but also protect and ward off unwanted visitors — find out which one is right for you

Choosing outdoor wall lights for your home is an important task. Nobody wants to install an eye-sore on the outside of the house, but also taking into consideration security, motion sensors, weatherproofing and, of course, cost can be confusing.

We’ve all been in the garden waving madly to trigger a floodlight sensor, or fumbling around in the darkness to put the key in the lock because the automatic timer hasn’t worked — finding a good-quality light is half the battle and can massively impact the enjoyment of your outside spaces.

If you’re searching for a sleek light with a warm white hue and a motion sensor for a reasonable price, look no more. Boasting a solar panel along the top and an integrated sensor, the outdoor wall light can be simply installed outside an entryway without the need for any electrical work.

offers three different modes (four if you include off), allowing the solar energy to be reserved when not required, but a bright and powerful automatic illumination to deter unwanted visitors:

Automatic light output of 75 lumens after dark

75 lumens after dark, plus when a movement is registered an increase to 400 lumens

Dormant which can output 600 lumens when a movement is registered

The Perceived Illegality Of Mold Inspection Practices By Building Inspectors

Mold Remediation: How Complex Should It Be?

Although mold growth in buildings has long been considered unsanitary, exposure control measures have been included in the cleanup process only recently. Current approaches to mold remediation vary substantially, ranging from investigators treating it as a hazardous material and to those who assign it a relatively low maintenance priority. While detailed guidelines for mold remediation are now available, their cost-effectiveness has never been evaluated.

The need for formal planning, detailed oversight, specialized personnel, and stringent project controls should depend on the extent of contamination, potential exposure, and occupant sensitivity. Where the repair of moisture sources or mold growth is not feasible, remediation may be delayed or reduced in scope where alternative control measures are considered. During the remediation process, some migration of airborne mold can be expected even under full containment. With spatial containment, occupant exposure can be avoided by temporary relocation and detailed cleaning of the area.

Although attention to indoor air quality increased in the 1980’s, control measures for mold remained general. A 1984 publication recommended repairing leaks, maintaining relative humidity below 70%, carefully discarding contaminated items, wearing respirators during cleanup, and HEPA vacuuming followed by disinfection


At the present time, mold remediation practice is polarized across the U.S., with some practitioners treating building mold as a hazardous material (implementing extremely stringent procedures to eliminate “toxic mold”) while others continue to assign it a low priority and take no specific precautions. Specifications for mold cleanup are ideally based on exposure control objectives, the extent of contamination, and site-specific logistics

Some common objectives of remediation projects are:

Restore building conditions (repair water damage, control musty odor, etc.)

Establish conditions acceptable for the general population (minimize minor allergic reactions, etc.)

Protect extremely sensitive individuals (e.g., minimize the potential for fungal infection in immuno-compromised individuals).

Mold Inspection Checklist

Mold is a growing issue and has been linked to many health problems. According to the Mayo Clinic, 93% of Chronic Sinus Infections have been attributed to mold.

Before moving into any home, condo or apartment, be sure to give it a thorough inspection to save yourself thousands of dollars and frustration in the future.

Here’s a quick checklist to make sure that you can perform a basic check to ensure a mold-free environment. If you do end up buying your house, then we would suggest getting an inspector in. If you’re renting the place, then these simple checks may just be enough for you.

In order to fully investigate hidden mold problems, sometimes it may involve disturbing potential mold areas (eg. unpeeling a section of wallpaper). Doing so can release massive amounts of spores into the environment and cause spreading into other areas of the household. Please be respectful and do this with caution!

People with severe asthma, compromised immune systems, elderly, infant, or otherwise at extra high risk of mold or other illnesses should be on higher alert as prolonged exposure to mold growth has been known to cause respiratory illnesses


When visiting a house or apartment, be prepared and bring a flashlight. Mold doesn’t require sunlight to live and grow – in fact they thrive in dark areas where it’s usually more moist. A flashlight will help you examine those dark areas such as in corners, crevices and cabinets.

A Comprehensive Guide to Mold Inspection and Testing

Walls, books, carpets, clothes, ceiling – molds can grow anywhere if there is moisture. It is a type of fungus that may develop indoors or outdoors, especially in places where sunlight does not reach. Most of the houses will have mold growth in damp places such as kitchen, bathroom, laundry rooms, etc.

When it grows outdoors, it plays a role in nature by breaking down dead leaves. While it grows indoors, the mold spores get released to the air which you breathe in. Thus it can turn harmful for your health as well as the structure.

Molds are most likely harmless when it is in small quantities. However, you cannot leave the molds to proliferate. In fact, you should be proactive in initiating the mold remediation task. And failing to do so may increase the cost and affects your health as some types of molds are dangerous.

Is Mold Testing a Scam?

Let us start from here. As you know, mold remediation has grown into a big business in recent years. Subsequently, the mold remediation industry includes a good number of scammers who pretend to be house mold removal specialists

Some of them use scare tactics to increase their business as well. These fake mold experts not only make the mold inspection a scam but also may break your bank in order in the pretext of mold remediation.

Mold Damage

Any building that has suffered from water damage or problems with excess moisture is at risk of mold growth. There are thousands of different types of mold found outdoors and indoors. All present potential risks and become problematic when they start actively growing. If you find that your home or business has begun to show signs of mold damage, it’s important to act as quickly as possible to have it treated and remediated to reduce long-term risks to your property and improve air quality.

When mold damage is discovered in your property, there are many questions that may spring to mind. For example:

Is mold dangerous?

What can breathing in mold do?

What kills black mold?

How much does mold removal cost?

Without the correct assessment and remediation, mold can become dangerous and affect the structural integrity and air quality of your property. As mold specialists, we’ve put together some useful guides on mold damage to help you understand and identify the risks before acting to remove mold.

Identifying Mold

Understanding exactly what mold is, how it can become a problem in your property, and spotting the early signs of a mold problem is the first step to preventing mold damage. There are thousands of types of mold that you may come across in your daily life and being able to identify the problematic types is key in avoiding danger and preventing larger problems.

The Removal and Remediation of Mold

If your business or home has been affected by mold, it’s important to ensure that it is quickly and effectively removed before it can cause further damage to property. Mold removal and remediation is about much more than simply washing away the visible traces and requires an expert, professional removal and remediation plan


More recently, mold has garnered media attention again. However, the headlines are of a very different kind. Beware: Toxic Mold warns Time magazine; Toxic Mold: A Hidden Health Hazard reports Newsweek.

In fact, mold is not a single substance but a very large group of plant-like organisms (a type of fungus). They require little to survive—only moisture and a food source—and, under the right conditions, can grow quickly. Although individual organisms are so small they can only be seen through a microscope, when growth is heavy mold becomes visible.

Molds also spread rapidly. They produce tiny spores that act like seeds; the spores travel through the air, forming new mold growth wherever they find a suitable place to settle.

Because they grow and spread so easily, molds (and mold spores) can be found virtually everywhere. Outdoors, molds play an important role in the breakdown and recycling of organic material like leaves and other foliage. Indoors, however, they serve no particular purpose and can actually be destructive. Heavy indoor mold growth can cause physical damage to the dwelling and health problems for its occupants.

Although molds have been accused of causing a wide array of medical problems—everything from headaches and asthma to moodiness and rashes—there is evidence to substantiate only a few of these allegations.

Strategy Vs Tactics To Market Your Accountant Practice

How to Choose the Right Small Business Accounting Software

Choosing the right small business accounting software isn’t as easy as most people think. With the opportunity to cut overhead by up to 75.6% with the right small business accounting system, making the decision on which one is right for you can be critical. Do you know how to choose the right business accounting software? Check out our simple tips to help make your decision easier.

Choosing Small Business Accounting Software

1. Understand your business. What does your business do and what features do you really need to track all of your accounting processes. If you’re in retail, construction, or some other industry that has specific requirements for accounting, then you may be able to find an industry-specific solution, or even purchase add-ons for systems such as QuickBooks.

2. Do you need your small business accounting software to integrate with other business platforms? Are you using a CRM, ERP, POS, or some other system? If so, then you’ll want to find a system that integrates with those so you can simplify your business management. If you aren’t using those, but are planning to, then you may be able to find a more robust solution for your accounting that includes CRM or full enterprise management.

3. How much are you willing to spend? You can find accounting software at different prices, but obviously you’ll have a set number in mind that you’ll want to spend. Don’t buy into all the hype and purchase a large scale enterprise platform unless you really need it. Most small businesses can get buy with systems like QuickBooks , Xero or Sage Peachtree. Don’t invest in a large-scale solution like NetSuite or Oracle unless you have a complex business with several employees.

4. Don’t be afraid to go to the cloud. In today’s world, most software companies have starting taking their platforms to the cloud. Cloud and online accounting software packages will often have a pay as you go model that lets you pay a small monthly fee, and enables you to access the system anytime, anywhere. Additionally, using a cloud or online accounting system provides you with increased security from losing all of your data from theft or computer crashes.

5. Talk to business and software consultants. Just because you think you know the platform you want to use, does mean you shouldn’t look at other options available. Look around and talk to various vendors just to get an idea of what the different packages offer. Who knows, you may end up stumbling on a solution that better meets your business needs.

6. Create your feature wish list and take demos. Figure out exactly what features you need and create a list, after talking with different accounting vendors and seeing different platforms in action, you’ll have a much clearer understanding of which accounting system will be best for your business.

Features to consider when selecting accounting software for your business

Accounts receivable and accounts payable

Every good accounting system allows you to record both accounts receivable, or the money that your customers owe you, and accounts payable, or the money that you owe your vendors. Accounting software should help you manage your receivables more efficiently, which includes creating professional invoices, sending payment reminders, and using payment gateways to collect online payments. You should also be able to tell which customers have yet to pay you and how much. Your software should help you keep tabs on your payables, such as vendor bills and operating expenses, and offer reminders to make sure that you pay them on time.

Cash-based and accrual-based accounting

There are two methods you can use to do accounting for your business: the cash method and the accrual method. If you are a small business, and mainly record transactions based on cash inflows and outflows, the cash accounting method will suit you better. If you are a large business that buys and sells on credit, and records accounts receivable and payable, the accrual method will suit your needs. Many companies start out accounting with the cash method, and switch to the accrual method as the business grows bigger. Your accounting software should provide your business the option to choose between the two methods, and also make it easy to switch from cash to accrual if you wish to do so. Look for an accounting system that offers you both methods and the flexibility to choose.

Payment gateways

Payment gateways provide your customers a safe and secure means of paying you online. By integrating with payment gateways, you can offer multiple convenient payment options including credit cards, debit cards, and online bank transfers. As soon as a payment is completed through the gateway, the status of the corresponding invoice will be updated automatically in your system. There is a wide variety of payment gateways out there, and they all charge different transaction fees for your transactions. Once you’ve found your preferred gateway, make sure that the accounting software you’re considering connects to that payment gateway. 

Projects and time tracking

When you run a business that undertakes projects for clients, you’ll need accounting software that can handle project-based billing. You can bill your clients based on the hours actually spent on project tasks, or by setting a fixed cost for each project. If you bill on the basis of time, look for software that lets you track the time you spend on individual tasks and convert those timesheets into invoices. To prevent incorrect billing, make sure the system also lets you approve time records before you create invoices from them.

Bank reconciliation

Bank reconciliation is a vital part of your accounting. Look for accounting software that fetches your bank statements automatically. It should also let you set up custom criteria and bank rules that automatically categorize and match your imported bank transactions. This will allow you to reconcile accounts quickly and keep your business audit-ready. 

Tax readiness

Being tax-ready is one of the many benefits of having good accounting software. Your accounting software needs to be able to calculate your tax liability, work with multiple tax rates, and generate tax reports to help you comply with the tax rules laid out by your government. 


Automation is one of the most valuable features of accounting software, because it helps you accomplish more in less time. At the invoicing and billing level, you can automate recurring transactions, send out payment reminders to customers automatically, and auto-charge customers’ credit cards for recurring payments. Auto-scan is another feature of accounting software automation—it helps you capture data from receipts and turn it into transactions with minimal effort. Concentrate more on your core accounting by choosing accounting software that automates tedious processes and reduces manual intervention.


Integrations make your accounting software more flexible. They allow you to work with different apps without leaving your accounting platform. Changes you make in an integrated application are automatically updated in your accounting platform, removing the need for repeated data entry. For example, integrating CRM software with your accounting will link your customers’ information to your accounting system, and any update made in CRM will be reflected in your accounting app, so all your teams are on the same page. The accounting software you choose should be capable of integration with third-party services including CRMs, project management tools, and inventory management systems.


Monitoring the health of your business is vital. To keep track of your business’ performance, choose software that is capable of generating financial statement reports such as balance sheets, income statements, and cash flow statements. The software you pick should also help you generate reports for different accounting departments like accounts payable and receivable, inventory, projects, and taxes. These reports will tell you how you are performing in specific areas of your business, where you are doing consistently well, and which areas need improvement.

Choosing accounting software starts with your budget.

Before choosing accounting software, keep in mind that the cost of accounting software can range dramatically. The amount is often determined by the number of features the software provides. The more features within the program, the more it costs.

It’s important to understand how the price compares to available features when choosing accounting software. You do not want to buy overpriced software or waste money on features you will not use. Find out if the software offers a free trial or demo before purchasing. That way, you know exactly what features you’re getting before you commit to the software.

Accounting software companies have different methods for charging users. Some software applications are sold at a large, upfront fee. Depending on the software, you might have to pay additional expenses for updates.

With other programs, you pay a monthly fee. They are often sold in packages with a tiered pricing structure. If you choose software that charges a monthly fee, know the terms before subscribing.

Some companies require you to sign up for a certain length of time, while others allow you to cancel whenever. If you break a contract, you could be charged a fee with some software programs.

Check for additional fees associated with the software. Some companies charge extra for creating invoices, running reports, and providing setup, customer service, and data storage. The software might also offer services that you can add on.

Who needs to access your bookkeeping software?

Depending on the size of your business, you may only need a couple of people to have access to your accounting software, or you may need multiple users. If you run several businesses, you may even need software that can handle multiple businesses within one login.

With multiuser access you can ensure that everyone at director level can see what’s going on, but leave the day-to-day entry and invoicing to somebody else. You may want to find a package that allows you to give users different levels of permission, so you can control who is able to authorise payments or see sensitive information such as staff salary data.

It might not be only people within your immediate business who need access, if you employ an accountant or bookkeeper outside of your payroll staff, you may want them to have access to certain parts of the software too.

Are you limited to an office?

When you choose your accounting software, it’s important to think about how it will be used, as well as which features you need. If you have a full administrative office, it may only need to work in one location. However, if you’re managing the day-to-day from client sites or from home, you’ll need to know you can use your bookkeeping software from anywhere. Likewise, if you do work with an accountant and want them to have access, they need to be able to login from their own premises.

Cloud-based systems make this option a reality, and some accounting software programs offer mobile apps you can use to make quick payments or get an overview of your data at a glance.

Key questions you should ask:

When it comes to accounting software, the search begins by examining both the products’ features and the vendors behind the products. Because accounting software contains hundreds—if not thousands—of features, this may seem like an overwhelming task. While such assessments are not exactly easy, they are not overly difficult, because only a handful of features are critical to making the right choice—and we will focus on those features. In evaluating a package, here are the key questions you should ask:

  • Does the software provide customization tools?
  • Is the vendor financially sound and reliable, and can it provide the technical resources my organization will need?
  • Can the product deliver the type of financial reporting I require?
  • Will the underlying technology meet my current and future needs?
  • s the product’s account-number structure suitable for my business?
  • Since e-business has become so important, does the package provide Web integration?
  • Can it handle foreign currency?
  • Is it easy to use?
  • How much does it cost?

Pediatric Nursing Degrees

How Often Do You See a Pediatrician for Your Children?

What do pediatricians do?

Pediatricians help keep children healthy by regularly checking their growth and development. They help prevent illness by giving vaccinations and general health advice.

And when children do get sick or hurt, they treat a wide range of common illnesses and injuries.

Some pediatricians are primary care physicians. This means they’re your first stop for general medical care and wellness visits. Other pediatricians specialize. The Johns Hopkins Children’s Center, for example, lists more than 30 pediatric specialties, including:

  • oncology: the treatment of childhood cancers
  • neurology: the treatment of childhood brain and nervous system disorders
  • otolaryngology: the treatment of childhood ear, nose, throat, and neck problems
  • neonatology: the treatment of babies born premature
  • allergy and immunology: the treatment of childhood food and environmental allergies and problems with the immune system
  • rehabilitative medicine: physical and occupational therapy for children
  • cardiology: the treatment of childhood heart conditions

Why Should You Visit a Pediatrician for Your Child’s Health?

There’s really nothing more important to a parent than their child’s health and wellness. Still, you might be considering using a family practice doctor as your child’s primary care provider or even just taking them to urgent care if they become sick or get injured. This can be a mistake.

A dedicated pediatrician is always the best choice for your child’s healthcare. Here are some very good reasons why you should establish care with a pediatrician to ensure your child’s continued health.

Pediatricians Are Specialists

Of course, children aren’t simply miniature adults. They have unique medical needs at every stage of life. Their healthcare providers need to be well-versed, trained, and experienced in dealing with their unique problems and needs.

Pediatricians, although primary care providers, are also specialists. In addition to medical school, pediatricians have completed a residency of several years and have experience with all aspects of childhood health. This includes growth and development, immunizations, common childhood diseases, and inherited disorders.

Pediatricians are Accustomed to Treating Children

While a family medicine doctor sees kids and adults of all ages, pediatricians exclusively treat babies, toddlers, kids, and adolescents. This allows them to focus their education, training, and practice on the needs of kids. A good pediatrician has dealt with fear of needles, fear of doctors, temper tantrums, and worried parents. They know how to put kids at ease, and they are patient with parents’ questions.

Furthermore, a pediatrician will know when your child needs to see a specialist. If there’s a disease or disorder that needs the attention of a specialist, your child’s pediatrician will be able to make a referral among their colleagues. This can be invaluable when your child needs specialized care.

Pediatricians Are Knowledgeable about Your Child’s Mental Health

Pediatricians don’t solely treat problems with the body—they are also trained in children’s mental health. If your child suffers from anxiety, depression, ADHD, autism, etc., your pediatrician is an excellent first point of contact. In many cases, they’ll be able to diagnose and treat the problem. Furthermore, if the issue is beyond their range of expertise, they can make an appropriate referral to a child psychiatrist or psychologist.

Pediatricians Have Hospital Connections

If your child needs surgery or a hospital stay, they’ll need an admitting physician. Sometimes this may be the surgeon or a pediatric hospitalist. However, most pediatricians have admitting privileges at a children’s hospital or at least a nearby hospital with a good pediatric ward. These connections ensure that your child receives specialized pediatric treatment during their hospital stay at a facility equipped to handle young patients.

Pediatricians Are Dedicated to Children

After medical school, a physician can choose to do their residency in multiple specialties, some of which are extremely lucrative. In almost every case, pediatricians choose pediatrics because they love children and want to see them live better, healthier lives. While all doctors are concerned about their patients’ well-being, pediatricians are solely dedicated to improving the quality of life for children.

How Often Do You See a Pediatrician for Your Children?

The answer depends on the child’s health and age. Generally speaking, a healthy child who is at least two or three years old will need to see their doctor only once a year for a check-up. Younger children will need to go more often.

A newborn baby should see their pediatrician three to five days after birth. They should go again when they have reached the following ages:

  • One month old
  • Two months old
  • Four months old
  • Six months old
  • Nine months old
  • 12 months old
  • 15 months old
  • 18 months old
  • 24 months old

Babies are fragile, and their immune system is not fully developed. There are also a number of birth defects that may not be readily apparent when the child is born. Frequent visits to the pediatrician will give the doctor many opportunities to examine the child and catch potential problems early. Similarly, they allow the pediatrician to administer the needed inoculations.

What Does a Wellness Exam Involve?

During the wellness exam, the doctor can check the child’s health and development. They will measure the child’s height and weight and compare the results to both the general population and the child’s family.

The pediatrician will also test the child’s heart, lungs, hearing, and vision. They will discuss any concerns that the parents have with them. For example, if the child does not seem to be sleeping well, the pediatrician can provide advice and/or reassurance.

How do I choose between a pediatrician and a family doctor?

The most obvious difference between a pediatrician and a family doctor is that pediatricians specialize in caring for babies, children, and teens, while family doctors also treat adults in the family.

For some people, it’s important for everyone in the family to be treated by the same doctor. Others might prefer a doctor who focuses on caring for children only.

This decision is ultimately a personal one. It may come down to which doctor makes you feel most comfortable.

Whether you’re looking for a pediatrician or a family doctor, it’s perfectly fine to interview doctors before you decide.

According to doctors at the Cleveland Clinic, these are some questions you should consider when choosing a pediatrician:

  • What are their office hours?
  • How do I reach them if my baby has an emergency after hours?
  • What hospital are they affiliated with?
  • How is billing handled?
  • Will my child get to see the same doctor every visit?
  • How friendly is the staff?

What’s the role of the pediatrician during childhood?

The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services recommends that you take your baby to the pediatrician for checkups at least six times during the first year.

Between the ages of 1 and 3, your child may visit the pediatrician every three to six months. After children turn 4, they usually only need well visits once a year.

At those visits, your pediatrician will track your child’s growth, eating habits, physical and emotional development, and sleeping habits. Your child may also receive vaccinations.

Well visits are a good time to talk to your pediatrician about any concerns you have or changes you’ve noticed since the last visit.

Why Start A Move In Cleaning Business

Moving home during the coronavirus pandemic

When you can move home

The Health Protection (Coronavirus Restrictions) (Wales) Regulations 2020 have been amended so that people who wish to move home can now do so. You may now:

move home

market a residential property for sale or rent and prepare a residential property for persons to move into

visit estate or letting agents, developer sales offices or show homes for the purposes of the purchase, sale, letting or rental of residential property

view a residential property

This guidance provides important public health information to ensure that key activities associated with moving home, such as viewing properties, happen safely. A home includes residential park homes and this guidance also applies to custom and self-builders looking to acquire a plot or a property to renovate or to demolish. This guidance also provides some recommendations to ensure that the risk of spread of coronavirus is reduced as far as possible.

This guidance was accurate at time of publication. It will be updated to reflect changes in restrictions made through amendments to the Health Protection (Coronavirus Restrictions) (No.2) (Wales) Regulations 2020.

The process of finding and moving into a home will need to be approached differently than before the coronavirus outbreak, given that those involved in the process will have to adapt practices and procedures to ensure that the risk of spread of coronavirus is reduced as far as possible.

This will include doing more of the process online, such as virtual property viewings initially, and ensuring the property is safe to enter prior to any in person viewings being carried out. This will include increased cleaning processes before, during and after property viewings being carried out.

A Guide to the Professional Pre-Move Clean

Life can be a messy thing. As storage areas build up with years of knick-knacks and forgotten purchases, dust finds a way to escape detection, and stains slowly make their way onto practically every surface; it can seem like cleaning is a never-ending battle. However, once moving day starts to get closer and you start to feel your bond slip out of attainable reach, that’s when it’s really time to take action.

What is Bond Cleaning?

Bond cleaning, otherwise known as end-of-lease cleaning, is the thorough cleaning of a home prior to the tenant moving out. This is often a requirement of property managers, and failure to perform a thorough bond cleaning can result in you not getting your bond money back.

Luckily, for those of you that don’t have a natural love for spring cleaning, there are other options available. we have been assisting families throughout the moving process. Aside from the more traditional moving, packing, and storage assistance, we also provide a range of bond cleaning services to help you make a clean break with your old home. So, with that in mind, let’s take a look at a few benefits offered by professional bond cleaning!

Bond Cleaning Saves Time

With all of the moving parts that come with moving, the last thing you have time for is deep-cleaning your home. That’s where end-of-lease cleaning services come into play. By handing over your cleaning duties to the professionals, you’re not only significantly shortening the amount of cleaning time; you’re freeing yourself up to handle the more pressing needs of moving home.

Hassle-Free Help

As a renter, it’s natural to be a little stressed about whether or not your landlord is going to be happy with the condition of your home. From unavoidable little scratches and dents, to stains that may or may not have been on the floorboards when you arrived, there are a number of things that can be brought up as reasons for not getting your bond money back. These are often issues that can be difficult to deal with on your own, and therefore, professional end-of-lease cleaning can provide an immense sense of relief.

Post-move cleaning tips

Moving day can be hectic, to say the least. With so many boxes to keep track of and people to give directions to, feeling exhausted at the end of the day is inevitable. However, you shouldn’t rest just yet. Ensuring that your home is clean after moving day is over will help you start fresh, not to mention the benefits it will have on your mental state. For this reason, we have gathered some of the best post-move cleaning tips to guide you through the process!

Clean your old home as well

Although today we will focus on cleaning your new home after you move in, you can and should apply these tips to ensure your old home is spotless as well. The best time to do this is after your movers have taken out all the moving boxes. That way, you will have an empty space without having to move things in order to clean under or behind them.

You should apply the same strategy when you move in. If you can, try to go to your new home before all the boxes have been delivered. It will be much easier to handle post-move cleaning if there is no clutter. Alternatively, you can place them all in one room until you have finished cleaning the rest of the house.

Gather supplies for post-move cleaning

Before you set off on your cleaning spree, there are some supplies you will have to obtain. While you might have to buy some of these, you will likely already have others, so make sure to check your unit

If you want to make your own cleaning product, you can do so with white vinegar and baking soda. On the other hand, you can use storebought products, just make sure that they are safe for the surface you plan on using them with. Finally, always wear rubber gloves when cleaning to protect your skin from harmful chemicals.

How to (Correctly) Pack Everything When Moving to a New Home

Disorganization and clutter occur naturally in most homes over time. As households buy more things, they might accumulate more possessions than they know what to do with. Items that would ideally be placed together in the home end up far apart, which can be inefficient.

Focusing on packing items by category makes it possible to unpack items and store them in a way that makes sense. Of course, there can be further categorization by room using this method (e.g. “Living Room Electronics”) — the goal is to simply pack things correctly, reduce unnecessary damage to valuables, and to stay organized. This type of packing takes time and effort.

Get an early start on the packing process. Taking a measured and thoughtful approach to packing means that extra time and energy goes into each box. In order to have time for this kind of consideration, start months in advance. Keep ample packing supplies on hand. Having enough packing tape, boxes, bubble wrap, sandwich bags and other supplies makes it possible to keep working until everything is complete.

To ensure that items will be organized in your new home, draw a layout of the house before unloading the moving truck. After drawing the layout, list each category of item that will be found in each room. This makes it easier to determine which boxes go where when unloading the truck, and also makes it easier to unpack when the time comes.

Decluttering is crucial before beginning the packing process, because clutter makes moving expensive and cumbersome. Packing up clutter instead of disposing of it makes it harder to stay organized after a relocation.

How to Declutter Before Moving House

A new move presents a perfect opportunity to walk around the house and look for items you might not need once you start your new life. You’ll lighten your load significantly. How to declutter before moving house, is not just a question of basic cleanliness and interior organisation, but ends up being an important part of giving yourself some peace of mind.

People with fewer belongings have less to worry about, less to clean and maintain, fewer things to be robbed of. Which ultimately leads to less stress and, in a way, to more free time.

How to Declutter for Moving: Preparations

Set a date. It should be about a month before the move and it may take you more than one day. Make sure you have nothing else to do during that time and that there are no unnecessary distractions – no guests, no kids, no spouse. Most people reach peak productivity when working alone.

Make a list. This is for the purpose of having a basic plan. You can make it as detailed as you want, or just list the rooms in your house, leave a big blank space under each and write down the items you decide to get rid of as you go.

Dwell on the idea. We live in a materialistic society, so for most people, it would be hard to get rid of anything. So, give yourself time, to get 100% convinced you’re going to do this. Set some rules. For example, “expired things go on the list, no matter what”, “things I’m never going to use, go on the list, no matter what”, and so on.

Set a deadline. This might not be for everyone, but if you’re a person who works better under pressure, go for it.

How to Declutter Before Moving House

Meditate. Give yourself at least half a minute of doing absolutely nothing. The best thing to start with is a clear head.

Work one room at a time. Otherwise, you’ll get tangled and might end up doing nothing all day.

Take everything out. To save time, and get a better grasp at what you’re having, empty out every possible container.

Decide what you need. This is a tough one since you might decide you need everything really. In this case, the best question to ask yourself is: “Okay, this might be useful in that rare situation, but even if I don’t have it, will it be that bad?”

Start with paper. In every home, paper tends to accumulate the most. It might even take you a whole day just to deal with all the documents, user manuals, even old books that might have been in your library for more than 40 years and the pages are so fragile that they crumble between your fingers. Once you clear away the paper, you will feel a lot better.

Segregate questionable items. This is the biggest helper since it gives you a clear vision of the things you really need. Make enough space and use four old sheets. On the first one, place expired items; on the second, place broken items; on the third, place items that still work, but it’s highly unlikely you will use them in the future; on the fourth place items that are perfectly okay, but you have the feeling they’ll just take up space.

Take out the junk. Obviously, the first two sheets of items belong in the trash. It’s a good idea to make sure there isn’t anything hazardous for the environment – old cell phones, batteries, old fireworks and anything that does not fall in the category of domestic junk and might pose some degree of danger. Research online on how to get rid of these items. You can also, make use of a rubbish removal service if some of these items are too bulky, and especially if we’re talking about electronics.

Evaluate working items. Once you’ve decided you won’t be needing the items on your last two sheets, look them over and consider if they’re fit enough to work for someone else. You can give them away to friends and family, and even sell off some of them.

Repeat until you’re happy. Honestly, you might not just do this for every room, but also a few times on the same room.

Practical Tips On Removing Squirrel From An Attic

A Quick and Easy Guide on How to Get Rid of Squirrels

Squirrels are members of the rodent family. The most frequently dealt with nuisance squirrel is the Eastern Gray Squirrel. They measure around 16-18 inches from nose to tail and weigh approximately one pound. Gray squirrels are active year-round and arboreal, meaning that they live primarily in trees. They feed on a great variety of foods, such as nuts, seeds, fungi, fruits, and of course the seed in your birdfeeder. They store nuts and acorns in holes in the ground.

Gray squirrels breed throughout the year, but there are two distinct peaks, in the winter and summer. After about six weeks, two to four young are born, and raised in a nest for about three months. They prefer cavities in trees (or homes), and when cavities aren’t available, they will build a nest out of leaves and twigs high in a tree.

How to Get Rid of Squirrels Once and for All?

Did you know that the little troublemakers have five toes on their back feet and four on their front feet? Well, if you didn’t, now you do. And, if you’ve come this far looking into all possible information on them, you might just have got yourself a real rodent problem.

Though we generally see squirrels as cute bushy-tailed creatures that jump in the trees in search of acorns and nuts, they can pose a real threat to your household and do more harm than good. I’m aware of the fact that treatments and remedies against them aren’t really mainstream, so I’ve prepared this article in case you are in need of assistance.

Kinds of Squirrels

Very few people actually know this, but there is more than just one type of squirrel. In fact, the animals we call ‘squirrel’ is a family name for a variety of rodents that inhabit the ground and underground, trees and bushes.

Eastern Gray Squirrel

These tree-climbing fellas are one of the most widely-spread kinds of species in North American. They are easily recognized by their long fuzzy tail that they can use for all varieties of actions – from using it as a shade screen to pretending it’s an umbrella.

The animals are known to be hoarders of all kinds. They can store around tens of kilograms of food as a reserve for the cold seasons. Both males and females are quite alike, and they tend to live in pairs during the mating season.

American Red Squirrel

Spread across the North of North American, this family is a small group of critters that live in the trees. They are the easiest to recognize thanks to their rusty shade.


General information:

In urban areas squirrels can gain access to roof spaces via building defects and cause damage to roof timbers, electrical wiring and plumbing. If this is the case , it is important to block or seal these entry points.

Treatment of Squirrels:

can only treats squirrels that are inside your property. The present legislation allows squirrels to be poisoned through bait or trapped and killed the later will consist of baiting in a metal trap.

The technician will carry out an environmental risk assessment on arrival and decide whether to use poison bait or traps. If using traps we will place one or more metal traps (usually in the loft area) containing peanuts that will humanely kill the squirrel immediately on its entry into the trap. Once trapped and killed the technician on notification by the resident will return and dispose of the squirrel and remove the trap. Or if it has been identified that poison bait is the appropriate treatment method this will be place in trays within the home usually the loft area. 

If manual traps are used please ensure that you inform any person/workman who may enter the loft area that there is a ‘set’ manual trap. Under no circumstances should children or pets have access to the location where the trap is situated

How to Get Rid of a Squirrel in Your Loft

It is difficult to imagine somebody being angry at a squirrel. After all, what harm can these soft-furred and fluffy-tailed animals possibly do to us besides melting our hearts away? But don’t be fooled by their disarmingly cute looks, for these tiny woodland critters can become a real menace once they enter your household.

The threats range from food supplies regularly going missing to tick and flea infestations and salmonella-carrying faeces and urine. The good news is there are many humane ways in which you can part with these unwelcome visitors. Or call in a squirrel control service to trap and evict them. But before doing that, you need to be aware of the reasons behind their small incursion.

Why are squirrels attracted to your house?

There are many reasons why squirrels have decided to seek shelter in your home. Here are the top three causes why you may have squirrels running about in your property:

The tree right next to your house isn’t maintained. Long, sprawling branches act as a staircase, which the agile creatures will use to reach your attic in a few well-timed jumps.

There are holes in your home walls, roof, or garage. These animals will read any hole they can fit through as a bright, neon “Welcome” sign, especially during the winter.

You keep bird feeders in your garden. Bird seeds are notorious for attracting squirrels from miles away. Having more than a few feeders can quickly lead to an infestation.

Squirrels generally prefer attics over other rooms for three reasons. Lofts are dry, warm and safe from natural elements and predators. When the squirrel gains access to your loft it will separate it into different sectors. One for defecating, one for sleeping, one for eating and one for giving birth (if it’s female). For its sleeping quarters, the fluffy vermin will use your insulation, tearing it to pieces to make a comfy bed.

What damage can squirrels cause to your attic?

Squirrel teeth never seize on growing, which is why they frequently need to gnaw on something to keep them nice and trimmed. However, while their natural habitat provides them with plenty of opportunities to do so (acorns, bird and tree seeds, etc.), in the big city squirrels are forced to improvise.

This can quickly turn into a problem with a capital “P” as they can heavily damage:

Electrical wires and transformers;

Heating and air conditioning systems;

Patio furniture, lawns, and garden plants;

Home siding, fascia, and soffit;

Roof shingles, doors, and grilles;

Select car parts.

How to Get Rid of Squirrels

Squirrels are amusing to watch when they’re chasing each other down a fence and energetically jumping from tree to tree. But you’ll start to wonder how to get rid of squirrels when you spy them digging holes in your garden and eating from your bird feeders, or hear them scampering around your attic. Since they gnaw on anything (including your attic wood and wiring), make a mess, and carry diseases and parasites, a squirrel that comes indoors needs to be dealt with ASAP. Find out how.


The first sign that you have a squirrel as your new roommate is usually the scurrying noise above your ceiling. If you haven’t seen the rodent but suspect it’s a squirrel, check for signs in the attic such as droppings, gnaw marks and vegetable matter (leaves, twigs, nuts and pits) that they’ve carried indoors. There may be nesting materials, evidence they’re setting up house in your house.

Squirrel Prevention

Sometimes the best way to keep the rodents from inside your home and out of your garden and bird feeders is to manage the number of squirrels around your yard. Here are some suggestions about how to get rid of squirrels from your property and how to control the ones that do come around.

Control outdoor food sources such as pet foods, garbage and insects.

Plant seedless varieties of trees to reduce your yard’s food supply, which will in turn cut back on your yard’s squirrel population.

Trim tree limbs at least eight feet from your home to keep squirrels from jumping on your roof and gaining access to the indoors.

Install porcupine wire wherever necessary, since its sharpness will keep squirrels from climbing.

Hang bird feeders away from trees on a large-diameter metal pole and on a chain. Include at least one squirrel baffle, a device constructed to make it hard for squirrels to climb the pole.

Avoid setting up feeding stations for squirrels to lure them away from bird feeders. This will only encourage a larger squirrel population and increase the chance of damage around your home.

Fill in any holes or cracks in your home’s exterior. Some squirrels can fit in an opening the size of a golf ball … and gnaw it bigger if need be.

How to Get Rid of Squirrels Inside Your Home

Since there’s no way to control all the squirrels in your neighborhood, there’s always a chance one or two will make their way into your attic, chimney and maybe even your walls.

Deterrents include:

spray that smells like their predators’ urine and chili peppers

high-intensity strobe lights

electromagnetic ultrasonic technology, a high-pitched sound that is supposed to drive rodents away

What Emergency Materials Your Truck Tires Need

Truck Tire Blowout Causes

A tire blowout is when a tire quickly loses air pressure so severely that it “blows” and the driver loses control. Although modern tires are more reliable than ever and blowouts don’t happen as much as they used to, they definitely still occur and can quickly create a dangerous situation.

In many cases, they lead to devastating truck accidents, especially when the truck is moving at a high speed. Sadly, 738 motor vehicle traffic fatalities involved tire-related crashes in 2017. 

If you’ve ever driven on the highway or Interstate and have noticed scattered remains of tires, you’ve seen the leftovers of a tire blowout. In this post, we’ll discuss some common tire blowout causes, the types of accidents that can occur and what truck drivers should do if a tire blows out.

Causes of Truck Tire Explosions

There are a lot of factors that can contribute to a tire blowout. In some cases, the driver is completely at fault, and it’s due to an oversight on their end. Other times, the problem may lie solely in the tire itself. Here are some of the most common reasons behind blowouts.

Driver Negligence

Often, the blowout will occur simply because the driver didn’t properly inflate their truck’s tires or they failed to change a tire that’s overworn. In both of these scenarios, a blowout can stem from tread separation, which causes the tire to rapidly lose air pressure and explode.

Defective Tires

It’s also common for the problem to lie within the tire itself. Major defects can lead to bead failures, sidewall zipper failures, tread separation, and tire shredding. The likelihood of this happening increases when a truck has been driven in adverse conditions like on bumpy roads, over potholes or over broken glass. Tire defects can also lead to recalls of commercial trucks that are using bad tires. Because tire manufacturers are responsible for producing a safe, reliable product, they must heed tire recalls.


Heat is another huge factor. Driving on the road for long periods of time in high temperatures puts a strain on tires and makes them much more susceptible to blowouts. As you might imagine, summer is the time of year when tire blowouts happen most frequently. The period between mid-May and early October has even been dubbed “tire blowout season” by some.

Cargo Overload

Cargo loading errors are a huge cause of tire blowouts. That’s why each state has a maximum gross weight in pounds or kilograms that a truck can carry when driving on the Interstate System. Truckers aren’t allowed to carry any additional cargo beyond their truck’s maximum capacity. However, if they overload it, the odds of a tire blowout increase significantly.

The Wrong Tires

Other times, a tire blowout can be the result of a driver using mismatched tires or the wrong size of tires. Again, this falls in the hands of the person driving the truck, and they need to ensure that all tires are properly fitted.

Bad Brakes and Bad Braking Practices

There’s also a correlation between worn brakes and improper braking and tire blowouts. Brake failure is one part of the equation in terms of how brakes can lead to blowouts. For instance, applying the brakes too much causes the tread to quickly wear down and may cause it to explode. Needless to say, driving down steep grades where frequent braking is required can lead to issues. That’s why drivers should shift down to the lowest gear when traveling down mountains.

Potholes and Bad Weather

These are two factors that are completely out of a driver’s control. Unfortunately, less than ideal conditions are inevitable, especially if a trucker is making long hauls. However, they should recognize the negative impact that potholes and bad weather can have and check their tires regularly under these circumstances.

Common Causes of Truck Tire Explosions

A truck tire explosion can be the result of several different causes. As mentioned, these accidents often occur when the air pressure in a tire is not correct. However, many tire blowouts are not caused by just low tire pressure. The following is a list of common causes of truck tire explosions.

Inadequate Truck Maintenance

The average truck driver will travel hundreds of miles every week to pick up or make deliveries. With this amount of traveling, it is reasonable to perform routine maintenance on a truck and the truck’s tires. Unfortunately, some trucking companies may not perform adequate maintenance on their fleet of vehicles. This can result in trucks being equipped with tires that may be underinflated or tires that are severely worn down. A trucking company that does not perform maintenance on their vehicles may be held liable for the injuries of an innocent motorist whose injuries could have been avoided.

Trailer Overload

Trucking companies earn their money by transporting cargo for their customers. When a trailer is fully loaded with items to be delivered, this can make a truck maneuver slower than usual. Some unscrupulous trucking companies may push the limit of a trailer so that they could earn more profits from deliveries. When the maximum weight of a truck trailer is exceeded, this can result in a truck tire explosion due to all the added pressure on a tire.

The additional trailer weight is hazardous to passenger vehicles because it will make it easier for a truck to crush other vehicles that may only weigh a few tons. To put that into perspective, an overloaded truck trailer can reach weights well over 50,000 pounds. If a truck of this size collides with a passenger vehicle, it is very likely that a fatal injury may occur.


Nearly every person has been on the highway next to a large truck that appears to be driving well over the speed limit. This can be frightening for a motorist that is driving next to a truck because if the driver were to lose control, a serious trucking accident might occur. Unfortunately, some truck drivers will drive over the speed limit while being completely unaware that their tires may be overinflated or underinflated. Speeding and hitting debris in the road can cause a tire blowout if the tires were already extremely worn down.

There are many other causes of truck tire blowouts not listed here. For example, defective tires sold by a manufacturer often play a role in many truck tire blowout cases. Our firm is here to help you file a claim against any party responsible for your accident.

Tire Inspection Requirements

The FMCSR requires drivers to do a pre-trip and post-trip inspection before and after every trip.  But do you really know what that means?  A proper inspection requires way more than just walking around, looking, and kicking the tires. The time it takes might be the very reason that truck drivers sometimes fail to do a proper inspection.

First off, to do a proper truck tire inspection, the drive needs to have the proper tools.  The truck driver needs to have a working air gauge, a tread depth gauge, a 3/8 inch bulge gauge, a blunt probe, pliers, and chalk or a crayon to mark issues in tires. Each of these tools enables the driver to inspect things that the naked eye cannot discern on visual inspection.

What do the numbers on my tire mean?

At first glance, you look at the sidewall of your tire and think, “’Do I need a super secret decoder ring to read this?” In addition to the model name of the tire there is a series of numbers that at first, you don’t deem important. However, these numbers are extremely helpful, especially when it’s time to replace your tires. Here’s a quick breakdown to help you decipher one of the best kept secrets in the automotive world.


Example: P225/60/R16 94V

P identifies your tire as a Passenger Tire. The P stands for PMetric. If your tire size starts with LT rather than a P then it identifies the tire as a Light Truck tire.

225 identifies the tire section width, which is the measurement of the tire from sidewall to sidewall in millimeters. This measurement varies depending on the rim to which it is fitted.

(There are 25.4 millimeters per 1 inch.)

60 is the two-figure aspect ratio. This percentage compares the tire’s section height with the tire’s section width. For example, this aspect ratio of 60 means that the tire’s section height is 60% of the tire’s section width.

R indicates the construction used within the tires casing. R stands for radial construction. B means belted bias and D stands for diagonal bias construction.

16 The last dimension listed in the size is the diameter of the wheel rim, which is most often measured in inches.

That this tire is meant for Light Truck

If a tire size reads, LT235/75R15 104/101S, the LT indicates that this tire is meant for Light Truck use. These tires are made for light-duty and heavy-duty pickup trucks (typically ½ ton, ¾ ton, or 1-ton load capacity), SUVs and vans. These tires fall into one of three categories:

Numeric– designed to carry heavy cargo loads and/or tow trailers.

Wide Base – designed to carry heavy cargo loads and/or tow trailers on a wheel rim with a diameter of 16.5 inches.

Flotation – wider, oversized tires designed to carry heavy cargo loads and/or tow trailers on loose surfaces such as sand, gravel, or dirt.

Tires beginning with a ST (for example ST175/80R13) indicate a Special Trailer tire and should only be used on car, boat or utility trailers.

Learn About The Latest Bathroom Remodeling Trends

Small Bathroom Ideas to Make Your Bathroom Feel Bigger

Looking for small bathroom ideas that will make the whole space seem bigger? So is most of Manhattan. The lack of square footage, limited natural light, and number of fixtures to squeeze in make a small bathroom one of the more challenging spaces to decorate. But done right, the whole room can seem brighter and more spacious. And no, you won’t have to spend a zillion dollars to carve a window into the wall (or call on something retro, like glass bricks).

These small bathroom ideas go beyond making the most of the available space and prove that bold design elements can be right at home in even the tiniest rooms. Here are the best ways to turn powder rooms, half-baths, and just little tiny (sometimes windowless) bathrooms into less cramped, more enjoyable situations. Your small bath may just be your next favorite room.

Keep Your Colors Light and Bright

A wood floor and vanity give this city bathroom a warm and serene feeling. A soft mint-green hue reflects natural light from the window. The space surrounding the freestanding tub makes the room feel more open, as does the lightweight curtain fabric, which allows maximum light to enter.

Or Double Down on Dark Color

Wait, what? “Oftentimes I like to paint small bathrooms [typically windowless rooms] a dark color, like black. It gives depth and creates an illusion of a larger space,” The hue will simultaneously impart a big-night-sky effect and also bounce the little light you have around the space. (Doing so will also draw attention to the light fixtures, she points out, so you’ll need to choose them thoughtfully—bulbs that bring in plenty of light, shapes you don’t mind being pretty pronounced.)

Mirror a Wall

Rather than just hanging one above the vanity, consider mirroring a whole wall of your tiny bathroom. The reflection of light and pattern (and, sometimes, that open door) will do the same good work a window does.

Your Ultimate Guide on Bathroom Remodel Costs

Your bathroom is perhaps the most frequently used room in your home, hence more than likely to require being remodeled first. Remodeling your bathroom has many benefits; a fresh look, improved functionality, and so on. But you also need to look at multiple angles of bathroom remodel costs before you go ahead with the process.

Average Bathroom Remodel Costs

a bathroom remodel costs anywhere between $10,000 to $25,000. However, it’s not as simple as it looks. To understand bathroom remodel costs, you also have to understand different aspects that go into it. For instance, the size of the bathroom, the scope of the remodel, etc. Let’s look at some of the factors that affect your bathroom remodel costs.

Size of the Bathroom

There are three types of bathrooms: the master bathroom, full bathroom, and a half bath or a powder room. The cost of your bathroom remodel will depend on the type of bathroom you are remodeling. For instance, a master bathroom remodel will cost you upwards of $20,000, while a full bath remodel will cost around $15,000, and a powder room remodel will cost you $5,000. While the size of the bathroom plays a big role, so does the scope.

Scope of the Bathroom Remodel

You don’t always have to gut your bathroom to its bare bones, you might also be looking for minor updates and this affects the bathroom remodel costs. For instance, a partial master bathroom remodel costs from $10,000 to $15,000, and a full-scale remodel can go anywhere between $15,000 and $30,000 based on the fixtures and items that you choose.

Fixtures and Hardware Costs

Your bathroom has various fixtures from bathtubs to sinks and vanities. All of these fixtures contribute significantly to your overall bathroom remodel costs. While their cost might vary from location to location, you can still get an idea of their average costs.

Bathroom planning advice

ways to save water in style in your bathroom

When it comes to redesigning your bathroom, taking water efficiency into account has more or less become a necessity. We should all be trying to conserve water, as it takes energy to process and deliver clean water to our homes – not to mention heat it for a shower or bath

Happily, the latest key pieces for bathrooms are often created with water efficiency at the heart of their design. From aerated showers and taps to dual-flush toilets, these water-saving wonders will allow you to create an eco-friendly bathroom, without having to sacrifice your self-care rituals.

Turn off the taps properly

You really don’t need to leave the water running when brushing teeth or shaving, so turn them off! you can save water without compromising on design, with its sleek and chic style.

Check for leaks regularly

Do you have a dripping tap, leaky cistern or pouring overflow? Wasted water can cost you a huge amount a year so it really is worth attending to those niggly jobs promptly. Little leaks can quickly turn into bigger floods, causing damage to surrounding cupboards, floors and ceilings.

Reduce the amount of time you spend in the shower

SmarTap can also be used with your bath, allowing you to regulate the temperature automatically, filling your bath to a pre-determined level. So if you have a shower-hog in your household, a SmarTap is just the ticket!

A Complete Guide to Bathroom Renovation

Renovating a bathroom can be an overwhelming task. Chances are that you’ll know what I’m talking about if you’ve even undertaken a project like this before. Planning the layout, buying the necessary fixtures and fittings, deciding on a budget and finding a competent contractor…it’s all hard work, right?

Well, not anymore! The secret to a successful renovation project is all about smart timing and careful planning. Below you’ll find a complete guide to bathroom renovation that is primarily based around both of these principles.

Six Months Out

Look for Inspiration.

Six months before the project is due to start, you should already be looking for sources of inspiration for your new bathroom. Root through magazines and catalogues and tear out any pages that catch your eye. Utilize the Internet to research various different bathroom styles and designs.

Ask around for recommendations.

While it’s not necessary to actually hire a contractor at this stage, it’s definitely a good time to start asking around for recommendations from family, friends, neighbors and hardware stores. This will save you a lot of time and effort closer to the start date as you’ll already be equipped with a list of possible contractors.

Three Months Out

Finalize your budget.

Once you have a rough estimate of the money you have to spend, it’s only then that you get a clearer sense of what the possibilities for the project are. Always deduct the cost of labor before you go allocating money for a new toilet or shower door.

Purchase some fixtures and fittings.

While some orders can be fulfilled within a few days, it’s always a good idea to play it safe and order your fixtures and fittings in plenty of time. You want to be sure that you have everything on time so that the project can run on schedule.

One Month Out

Prep for the arrival of the contractor.

It’s now time to clear out all the medicine cabinets and the bathroom closets so they’re free of your personal belongings. You should also go shopping for the paint and the accessories that you’ll need to complete the look of your new bathroom.

During the Renovation

Keep up to date on the progress that’s being made.

Inspecting the contractors work while it’s ongoing will ensure that the job is being completed to your specifications. If you do see anything amiss, don’t let it go unnoticed and inform the contractor straight away so that it can be rectified.

Planning a bathroom – everything you need to know about designing your perfect washroom

It was once an afterthought – often contained to a shed in the garden. But now, after the kitchen, the bathroom is probably the most important room in the house in terms of resale value. As we seek to make the most of precious downtime, its status has been raised. No longer driven by purely practical needs, many of us are renovating our bathrooms with relaxation and pampering in mind.

As well as simple renovations, we’re also planning more extra bathrooms and en-suites. Whatever your reason, installing a new bathroom is a serious undertaking and can be deceptively tricky. It requires quite an array of fittings and technical skill, often in a very compact space. For this reason, carefully planning from the start will prevent costly mistakes and changes down the line.

Assess your bathroom needs

Begin by working out your key priorities. A family bathroom or spa-style sanctuary will require a long list of specifications and fittings that could include a bath, separate shower, double basins, and heaps of storage, while an en-suite or guest bathroom may just require a shower and loo.

Plan a bathroom layout

Don’t change a layout just for the sake of it. If it works well for you, keep it. It’s a much cheaper option, too, as moving waste and water pipes can be expensive. Replacing fittings, flooring and tiles or repainting walls is a quick way to get a refresh. If your layout isn’t quite right, think about the ways you might be able to make small but effective changes. Rehanging doors or fitting sliding ones is an excellent way to gain space, for instance.

Seek out inspiration

Choose your style early on as this will help narrow down the choice of fittings to consider. Your main options are period style, classic or a contemporary look. Hotels, particularly small boutique ones, are a fabulous source of design inspiration, so scour their websites for looks you love. Quite often they’ll feature a lot packed into a compact space, so you’ll probably pick out a few layout tips, too.

Drain And Camera Sewer Inspection


Sewer camera inspection offers you an inside view of damaged sewer pipes without the need for expensive and messy excavation. Not only does your plumber get a more accurate and precise picture of what your sewer problem is, as the homeowner, you also can have a closer look at the problem. But, sewer camera inspections can’t necessarily identify every potential issue with your pipes. Here look at how a sewer camera inspection works and what it can and can’t do.


Sewer camera inspections use a tiny camera mounted on the end of a cable, that can be inserted into your sewer pipes and travel through them underground capturing images of your sewer’s interior. The plumber can observe this process through a monitor based at the ground level and can see what the camera see’s and identify potential problems in your sewer pipes.


The Location of Your Sewer Lines – By using attached location devices, sewer cameras can send out signals to the recipient above ground that will help your plumber identify the exact location of sewer lines.

Slow Drainage and Blockages – While the main water supply is under pressure, sewage leaves your home by the power of gravity. When dirt, hair, grease, or a clog blocks your sewer line, your sewer can drain too slowly, or may start to back up. A sewer camera can be used to identify the cause of the blockage; whether it’s a clog, tree root, or a collapsed pipe, it can help you find the right solution.

System Type and Materials – It’s a simple thing, but because sewer pipes are underground you can’t tell what type of system you have. A sewer camera inspection can tell you if you have PVC or cast-iron pipes, and this can help project potential sewer issues.

Structure and Connections – A sewer camera inspection allows your plumber to see fittings, tee’s, and other types of connections. This can help plumbers understand where water flows and which directions it travels in.


The main things that sewer camera inspections can’t identify are the location of a leak.

The reasons for this include –

A leak is caused when water escapes out of a pipe. Because a sewer camera is inside the pipe, it can’t identify leaks.

When a pipe is leaking, there may be many other factors at play – tree root invasion, pipe collapse, clogs and blockages, and dirt and debris build-up. Meanwhile, your plumber is at surface level trying to decipher and understand what they are seeing on the monitor. This can make a subtle leak hard to pinpoint.

PVC and cast-iron pipes used for sewage are very thick, so it can be hard to tell if cracks or holes go through the full thickness of the pipes and are leaks.

A sewer camera inspection is a highly effective and non-invasive way to get an inside look at your underground sewer pipes, but it’s essential to remember camera inspections can’t locate leaks. To ensure success with your sewer repairs be sure to choose an experienced and licensed plumber and get a professional perspective on the best inspection method for your pipes.

Benefits of Sewer Inspection Cameras

Fear of the unknown is daunting, but lying awake at night wondering about the condition of your plumbing pipes or what’s clogging your drain shouldn’t be your reality.

There is a sure way to know what’s going on inside your home plumbing. Sewer inspection cameras are exactly what they sound like and can detect anything from leaks to clogs.

The pictures won’t be pretty, but the camera attached to the end of a flexible rod used by professionals will find plumbing problems before they turn into disasters. You might not think there’s an issue or be able to see one, but that’s exactly the point! Here are more reasons a sewer line inspection could be beneficial for you

Locate a leak or water break

There are telltale signs of water leaks, and then there are hidden clues there’s something not quite right with your plumbing. While the not-so-subtle signs might be enough to discover where water is escaping your pipes, sewer inspection cameras can help determine the exact location. If left untreated, plumbing leaks can be costly and result in long-term damage to your home. If you notice the slightest change in water pressure or your water bill, get things checked out. Preventative measures won’t always keep emergencies at bay.

Eliminate unnecessary digging and guessing

The thought of digging a small hole in your lawn wasn’t so bad until it turned into a 3-foot trench, and you and your plumber are still trying to find the leak or obstruction in your plumbing. Sewer inspection cameras are much less intrusive while eliminating the higher cost and excessive digging in your yard while guessing the wrong spots. You’ll also save some time explaining to the neighbors why your property has become a mess and an eyesore.

Video Pipeline Inspection

Gone are the days when digging for leak points in your home’s pipeline was a matter of educated guesswork. Today, it just takes a phone call to request a video pipeline inspection or CCTC pipeline inspection. The only thing you must ensure is that the company you call has enough experience and good enough equipment to do a thorough job

The self-righting and auto-focusing cameras attached to drain inspection lines can detect the problems in just a single trip. equipment is fitted with powerful lights and has high-resolution recording capabilities. Most importantly, make use of cameras that have transmitters in them which let locate the exact block points.

Most people think of video sewer inspection only when they have clogged drains which cannot be fixed by drain auger, drain cleaner or a plunger. What they do not realize is that there is a need for inspection even when renovating/adding a bathroom or kitchen to the house. You must get an idea of whether your sewer line can actually handle the increased amount of waste when you make the modifications to your home.


If you’ve ever had sewer line blockage before, you know how expensive, disruptive, and downright nasty it can be. The truth is, most homeowners never give their sewer lines a second thought until there’s a problem. Out of sight, out of mind.

But all kinds of things may be going on underground that you can’t see: grease buildup, clogging from paper products, root intrusion, cracking or shifting due to oversaturated soil, and deterioration from age. If your water is draining more slowly than usual, you hear gurgling noises coming from your toilet, or a sinkhole appears in your yard, you may have a sewer backup.

Addressing the issue with the least disruption

Until recently, sewer line repair may have entailed digging up large amounts of lawn just to find the area of blockage. In other words, it was anyone’s best guess. Today can perform a video inspection that will pinpoint the exact location of the problem.

Here’s how it works. A small, waterproof high-resolution video camera is sent into your sewer lines via a long, flexible scope. The camera’s journey often begins with the branch lines (leading from the tubs and faucets) and extends through the larger pipe that leads to the municipal line on the edge of your property. The image is electronically sent to a laptop so that both the technician and homeowner can view the extent of damage remotely.

The camera is also equipped with a transmitter that sends a signal to a locating device, allowing the technician to determine the exact blockage point and depth from above ground. The spot is then marked, indicating where the sewer trench will be dug. This accuracy dispenses with the guesswork and spares unnecessary damage to your lawn, saving you money and headaches in the long run.

Sewer Inspections – Signs to Look For

Last winter I was inspecting a vacant home. As I came to a bathroom I did all the normal things, turned on the shower, the sink and flushed the toilet at the same time. All looked fine. Then I went to the next bathroom which was in the basement and did the same thing. Then on to the kitchen. Later in the inspection while I was walking past the basement bathroom I noticed some dirt in the shower pan. It was odd because I didn’t see dirt there when I first inspected it

Where could that dirt have come from? As I investigated further I noticed water coming out from under the toilet and onto the floor. Down the hall I found a pool forming on the furnace room floor. The normal course of my work had lead to the discovery of a problem my client would want to know about. One that obviously needed fixing.

But what’s the right way to fix the problem? Does the drain line simply need roto-rooting? Maybe. The three main causes of plugged sewer lines are roots, grease, and structural problems. Roots and grease can be removed fairly inexpensively ($100-$200), however if there are structural problems with the drain, the piping will need to be repaired or replaced. This typically costs between $2500 and $14,000.

Sometimes there may not be obvious symptoms such as the ones I mentioned above. The owner may regularly have the drain roto-rooted and think that it is perfectly normal and not mention it in a disclosure. For buyer protection the best course of action is to have a drain line inspected with a video-scope under certain circumstances. A video-scope allows inspection of the drain piping from the house out to the city sewer

It is done by feeding a fiber optic cable into the drain. A video tape can be produced at the same time so the buyer does not have to be present to “see for themselves” or to show to whomever buys the house next the conditions that existed at the time of the inspection

Maintaining Flat Roof

Will a flat roof always leak?

Flat roofs are known as being problematic, with many suffering leaks. However in my own experience the problems with leaking flat roofs are usually as a result of either poor workmanship installing the roof membrane, poor maintenance by the building owner or as a result of age. A well designed and waterproofed flat roof should not cause problems or leak.

Is a flat roof actually flat? No. For clarity, flat roofs actually have a slight slope to allow rain water to drain off the roof, but they seem flat, when compared with more traditional steeply sloped roofs. The slope should be a minimum of 1 in 80, but in practice a minimum slope of 1 to 40 should be used to allow for deflection of the roof and for normal building tolerances.

Why are flat roofs popular? Flat roofs are economical to construct. They reduce the volume of the building thus reducing energy costs and allow, if required, for the roof to be used for other activities like a patio, positioning of services or simply as a green roof.

How long do waterproofing membranes last? The membranes used to cover and waterproof flat roofs usually only last 20 to 30 years. This is less than a well constructed tiled roof. As a result building owners need to plan for replacing the membrane on their flat roofs.

What maintenance is required? Regular maintenance of flat roofs is still required, as they are less forgiving than steeply sloped roofs. The most common problems are that rainwater outlets become blocked with leaves and other windblown debris. Installing leaf guards only slows this occurring as in my experience at this time of year, autumn, even these can become overpowered by the shear quantity of leaves being blown around by the wind.

Why do all flat roofs leak?

Like any roof, in time, after wear and tear and weathering, flat roofs will eventually leak. No roof will last forever and if you have a roof over your head it will most likely leak someday. This is perhaps all the more true of flat roofs, because water doesn’t run off of the roof surface quickly and can easily find breaks in the roofing surface resulting in leaks. Flat roofs are a common feature in many commercial or industrial buildings and often require more work than any other standard types of roofs. Though flat roofs are simple to build, it requires a lot of maintenance and inspection so that everything is functioning as it should.

If you own a commercial property with a flat roof, it can be daunting task to diagnose and resolve a problem if you suspect leakage. Leaks don’t always mean that your entire roof needs to be replaced. The most common and most challenging part of dealing with flat roof issues is figuring out whether you need to get it replaced or if it just needs a few minor repairs. If you notice a leak in your commercial flat roof, call Royal Roofing Ltd. for a complete roof inspection. We will diagnose leaks and repair your roof as necessary.

Common Problems that Can Cause Leaks in Flat Roofs

Flat commercial roofs are more complex than they might seem. There are several common causes for flat roof leaks, and each of them can occur in various situations:

  • Standing water on the roofing surface
  • Roof is located in a harsh environment
  • Utilizing outdated roofing technology

A list of common problems that occur in flat roofs and how to deal with the issues below:

Ponding Water

Standing or “ponding” water is one of the most common issues faced by flat roofs. It is characterized as any water that remains on the roof for longer than 48 hours following precipitation. The longer the water remains on your roof, the greater the chances are that it will lead to damaging leaks. The roof should be designed with a slight slope so that water can easily find its way to the drain points. Sometimes we find that even flat roofs that were carefully designed in this way can eventually be faced with ponding as they age.

It is important that you regularly monitor your roof for any signs of standing water. Gutters, downspouts, wall scuppers and drains will lead to ponding if not functioning properly. Ponding is more likely to occur around large rooftop units because the weight of these structures will prevent the structure of the underlying roofing supports from working as designed, leading to ponding.

Be aware that, even if ponding doesn’t lead to leaks, it still represents a significant roofing problem. The reason for this is, as time goes by,the enormous weight of standing water will gradually make the problem worse. Roof leveling can resolve minor drainage issues, but more serious issues of ponding require changes to the underlying roof structure itself.

Leaks and Moisture

Another common problem with flat roofs is leaks. But since it’s a flat roof, the water doesn’t have anywhere to go but straight down. This means that the moisture can seep into the roof that may cause mold and fungus, or damage to the structure. The best way to overcome this issue is to get your roof inspected regularly so that it can be maintained every time there is an issue.

Damaged Roofing Membranes

Until several years ago, flat roofs were made of multiple layers of asphalt tar, roofing felt and gravel. This was an effective approach, but is time-consuming to install. So, nowadays, roofing membranes are the more popular choice of the business owners. These membranes are made of a very thin single-ply membrane, generally made of durable rubber. In comparison to built-up roofing these membranes are less expensive and easier to install.

But, like any other roofing system, these membranes are prone to damage as time goes by. Cracks, blisters, and splits are some common problems. These cracks and splits allow water to accumulate beneath the membrane and once the insulation becomes waterlogged, it will lead to difficult to identify causes of leaks. For this reason, you should get your roofing membrane inspected regularly for signs of damage.

Cracks in the Roof

Flat roofs tend to have more pressure exerted in comparison to sloped/slanted roofs. When this pressure becomes excessive, it can lead your roof to crack. As soon you see any crack in the roof, call a commercial roofing contractor immediately. Not only will a crack will expose the roof structure – or potentially even the interior of building – to precipitation, but it is also a sign that your roof is structurally compromised and it’s the right time to get it repaired or replaced.


Like most other materials, asphalt flat roofs expand and contract with changing weather. With time, this continued process of expansion and contraction will cause the flashing to pull away from the corners and edges of your roof. The flashing faults will lead to leaks, and moisture can easily get trapped inside the roof. The best way to avoid this is to get your flat roof inspected regularly and repaired as necessary, because if the leaks become significant you will have no other choice except to get a new roof.


Blistering happens when air or moisture pockets get trapped between the layers of the roof membrane or between the membrane and the roof deck.

The pockets expand and stretch the membrane as the sun heats the roof. Unless the blisters show signs of more serious damage, they’re sometimes best left alone. If they’re in an area that is getting foot traffic, the membrane has cracked, the surface is coming off, or the blister is near a seam then they’ll need to be dealt with.

In order to repair a blister in a roof, you’ll need new membrane material that will extend at least six inches around the edges of the blister after it’s been cut out.


Alligatoring is a surefire sign that your roof is aging. The asphalt for your roof has started to age and lose it’s elasticity since the sun’s UV rays have dried the roof material causing it to crack and bubble, resembling alligator skin.

In order to fix a roof that is alligatoring, you’ll need to clean it of particles and dust, then add a compatible primer and lastly, it’ll need a new coating on the roof.

Buckling In The Membrane

The membrane in a flat roof is always one solid piece. As your building shifts and settles, it can cause your roof membrane to buckle and damage the structure. Buckling repair is always best left to a roofing professional.

What are the areas that are common to cause flat roof leaks?

Objects on Flat Roofs: Skylights, chimneys, A/C units, vent pipes, pitch pockets, and other objects contribute to one of the main causes of flat roof leaks. When a skylight seal is broken on the glass, the leak will show in a flat roof itself. When the mortar on the chimney or the chimney crown is cracked, you will find the leak to appear on the flat roof. When an air conditioner unit’s pan is rusted through, it will show a leak on a flat roof.

Where can I expect to find a leak on a flat roof?

Transitions to a pitched roof: Many times an adjacent pitch roof, like an asphalt shingle roof or a cedar roof, will be the reason for a leak on a flat roof. When a shingle roof starts leaking, the water will flow to the bottom of the roof to where the rubber roof is connected, and flow under the rubber membrane causing a leak on the flat roof.

Does materials play a part in Flat Roof Leaks?

Inferior Roofing Materials: EPDM Rubber is the worst roofing material to use for flat roofs. EPDM Rubber Roofs don’t last 10 years without major issues. The adhesives that bond the seams together fail due to extreme heat.